UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2023

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM ______ TO ______

 

COMMISSION FILE NUMBER 001-38605

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

 

British Virgin Islands   001-38605

(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

50 Millstone Road, Building 400

Suite 130

East Windsor, NJ

  08512
(Address of principal executive offices)   (Zip Code)

  

REGISTRANT’S TELEPHONE NUMBER, INCLUDING AREA CODE: 1 (888) 827-4832

 

SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OF THE ACT:

 

Title of each class   Trading Symbol(s)  

Name of each exchange on
which registered

Ordinary shares, no par value   GTEC   The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

 

SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(g) OF THE ACT:

 

NONE

(Title of Class)

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☐ No ☒

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No ☒

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed be Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (Section 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer Smaller reporting company
    Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  

 

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

 

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No 

 

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold, or the average bid and asked price of such common equity, as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter was approximately $10.81 million.

 

As of April 16, 2024, there were 13,594,530 ordinary shares of the registrant outstanding.

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

 

        Page
Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements   ii
         
PART I      
         
ITEM 1.   BUSINESS   1
ITEM 1A.   RISK FACTORS   19
ITEM 1B.   UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS   35
ITEM 1C.   CYBERSECURITY   35
ITEM 2.   PROPERTIES   36
ITEM 3.   LEGAL PROCEEDINGS   36
ITEM 4.   MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES   36
         
PART II        
         
ITEM 5.   MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED SHAREHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES   37
ITEM 6.   [RESERVED]   38
ITEM 7.   MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS   38
ITEM 7A.   QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK   46
ITEM 8.   FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA   F-1
ITEM 9.   CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE   47
ITEM 9A.   CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES   47
ITEM 9B.   OTHER INFORMATION   48
Item 9C.    Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections.   48
         
PART III        
         
ITEM 10.   DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE   49
ITEM 11.   EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION   55
ITEM 12.   SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED SHAREHOLDER MATTERS   56
ITEM 13.   CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE   58
ITEM 14.   PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTING FEES AND SERVICES   59
         
PART IV        
         
ITEM 15.   EXHIBITS, FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES   60
ITEM 16.   FORM 10-K SUMMARY   61
    SIGNATURES   62

 

i

 

 

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward Looking Statements

 

This Annual Report on Form 10-K, or this Report, contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). These statements, which express management’s current views concerning future business, events, trends, contingencies, financial performance, or financial condition, appear at various places in this report and use words like “aim,” “anticipate,” “assume,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “forecast,” “future,” “goal,” “intend,” “likely,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “see,” “seek,” “should,” “strategy,” “strive,” “target,” “will,” and “would” and similar expressions, and variations or negatives of these words. These statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to certain risks, uncertainties and other factors, some of which are beyond our control, are difficult to predict and could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or forecasted. These risks and uncertainties include the following:

 

  the availability and adequacy of our cash flow to meet our requirements;
     
  economic, competitive, demographic, business, and other conditions in our local and regional markets;
     
  changes or developments in laws, regulations, or taxes in our industry;
     
  actions taken or omitted to be taken by third parties including our suppliers and competitors, as well as legislative, regulatory, judicial, and other governmental authorities;
     
  competition in our industry;
     
  the loss of or failure to obtain any license or permit necessary or desirable in the operation of our business;
     
  changes in our business strategy, capital improvements, or development plans;
     
  the Company’s ability to devise and implement effective internal controls and procedures;
     
  the availability of additional capital to support capital improvements and development;
     
   ● global or national health concerns, including the outbreak of epidemic or contagious diseases such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic; and
     
  other risks identified in this Report and in our other filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC.

 

This Report should be read completely and with the understanding that actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. The forward-looking statements included in this Report are made as of the date of this Report and should be evaluated with consideration of any changes occurring after the date of this Report. We will not update forward-looking statements even though our situation may change in the future and we assume no obligation to update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

 

ii

 

 

PART I

 

ITEM 1.  BUSINESS

 

General

 

Greenland Technologies Holding Corporation (the “Company” or “Greenland”) designs, develops, manufactures and sells components and products for the global material handling industries.

 

Through its PRC subsidiaries, Greenland offers transmission products, which are key components for forklift trucks used in manufacturing and logistic applications, such as factories, workshops, warehouses, fulfilment centers, shipyards, and seaports. Forklifts play an important role in the logistic systems of many companies across different industries in China and globally. Generally, industries with the largest demand for forklifts include the transportation, warehousing logistics, electrical machinery, and automobile industries.

 

Greenland’s transmission products are used in 1-ton to 15-tons forklift trucks, some with mechanical shift and some with automatic shift. Greenland sells these transmission products directly to forklift-truck manufacturers. In the fiscal years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, Greenland sold an aggregate of 149,543 and 129,686 sets of transmission products, respectively, to more than 100 forklift manufacturers in the PRC.

 

In January 2020, Greenland launched HEVI Corp. (“HEVI”), formerly known as Greenland Technologies Corp. to focus on the production and sale of electric industrial vehicles to meet the increasing demand for electric industrial vehicles and machinery powered by sustainable energy in order to reduce air pollution and lower carbon emissions. HEVI is a wholly owned subsidiary of Greenland incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware. HEVI’s electric industrial vehicle products currently include GEF-series electric forklifts, a series of lithium powered forklifts with three models ranging in size from 1.8 tons to 3.5 tons, GEL-1800, a 1.8 ton rated load lithium powered electric wheeled front loader, GEX-8000, an all-electric 8.0 ton rated load lithium powered wheeled excavator, and GEL-5000, an all-electric 5.0 ton rated load lithium wheeled front loader. In addition, HEVI introduced a line of mobile DC battery chargers that support DC powered EV applications in the North America market. These products are available for purchase in the United States (“U.S.”) market. In August 2022, Greenland launched a 54,000 square foot industrial electric vehicle assembly site in Baltimore, Maryland to support local services, assembly and distribution of its electric industrial heavy equipment products line.

 

Greenland serves as the parent company of Greenland Holding Enterprises Inc. (“Greenland Holding”), a holding company formed in the State of Delaware on August 28, 2023, which in turn acts as the holding company for Zhongchai Holding (Hong Kong) Limited, a holding company formed under the laws of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (“Hong Kong”) on April 23, 2009 (“Zhongchai Holding”). Zhongchai Holding’s subsidiaries include Zhejiang Zhongchai Machinery Co. Ltd., an operating company formed under the laws of the People’s Republic of China (the “PRC” or “China”) in 2005, Hangzhou Greenland Energy Technologies Co., Ltd. (“Hangzhou Greenland”), an operating company formed under the laws of the PRC in 2019, and Hengyu Capital Limited, a company formed in Hong Kong on August 16, 2022 (“Hengyu Capital”). Through Zhongchai Holding and its subsidiaries, Greenland develops and manufactures traditional transmission products for material handling machineries in the PRC.

 

Greenland was incorporated on December 28, 2017 as a British Virgin Islands company with limited liability. Following the Business Combination (as described and defined below) in October 2019, the Company changed its name from Greenland Acquisition Corporation to Greenland Technologies Holding Corporation.

 

As of December 31, 2023, Cenntro Holding Limited owned 45.69% of our outstanding ordinary shares. Cenntro Holding Limited is controlled and beneficially owned by Mr. Peter Zuguang Wang, the chairman of the board of directors of the Company.

 

1

 

 

Significant Activities since Inception

 

Initial Public Offering

 

On July 27, 2018, we consummated our initial public offering of 4,400,000 units, including a partial exercise by the underwriters of their over-allotment option in the amount of 400,000 units. Each unit consisted of one ordinary share, no par value, one warrant to purchase one-half of one ordinary share and one right to receive one-tenth of one ordinary share upon the consummation of our Business Combination, pursuant to a registration statement on Form S-1. Warrants must be exercised in multiples of two warrants, and each two warrants are exercisable for one ordinary share at an exercise price of $11.50 per share. The units were sold in our initial public offering at an offering price of $10.00 per unit, which generated $44,000,000 (before underwriting discounts and offering expenses) in gross proceeds.

 

Simultaneously with the consummation of our initial public offering, we completed a private placement of 282,000 units at a price of $10.00 per unit to Greenland Asset Management Corporation (the “Sponsor”) and Chardan Capital Markets, LLC (“Chardan”), which generated $2,820,000 in gross proceeds. We also sold to Chardan (and its designees), for $100, an option to purchase up to 240,000 units exercisable at $11.50 per unit (or an aggregate exercise price of $2,760,000) commencing on consummation of the Business Combination (as defined below). The unit purchase option may be exercised for cash or on a cashless basis, at the holder’s option, and expired on July 24, 2023. On February 18, 2021, Chardan exercised its option to purchase 120,000 units.

 

Business Combination

 

On October 24, 2019, we consummated our business combination with Zhongchai Holding (the “Business Combination”) after a special meeting, where the shareholders of Greenland considered and approved, among other matters, a proposal to adopt a share exchange agreement (the “Share Exchange Agreement”), dated as of July 12, 2019, among (i) Greenland, (ii) Zhongchai Holding, (iii) the Sponsor, in the capacity as the purchaser representative (the “Purchaser Representative”), and (iv) Cenntro Holding Limited, the sole member of Zhongchai Holding (the “Zhongchai Equity Holder” or the “Seller”).

 

Pursuant to the Share Exchange Agreement, Greenland acquired from the Seller all of the issued and outstanding equity interests of Zhongchai Holding in exchange for 7,500,000 newly issued ordinary shares, no par value, of Greenland, to the Seller (the “Exchange Shares”). As a result, the Seller became the controlling shareholder of Greenland, and Zhongchai Holding became a directly and wholly owned subsidiary of Greenland. The Business Combination was accounted for as a reverse merger effected by the Share Exchange Agreement, where Zhongchai Holding is considered the acquirer for accounting and financial reporting purposes.

 

The Business Combination was accounted for as a reverse recapitalization (the “Recapitalization Transaction”) in accordance with Accounting Standard Codification (“ASC”) 805, Business Combinations. For accounting and financial reporting purposes, Zhongchai Holding is considered the acquirer based on the following facts and circumstances:

 

  Zhongchai Holding’s operations comprise the ongoing operations of the combined entity;
     
  The officers of the newly combined company consist of Zhongchai Holding’s executives, including the Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer, and General Counsel; and
     
  The former shareholders of Zhongchai Holding own a majority voting interests in the combined entity.

 

As a result of Zhongchai Holding being the accounting acquirer, the financial reports filed with the SEC by the Company subsequent to the Business Combination are prepared “as if” Zhongchai Holding is the predecessor and legal successor to the Company. The historical operations of Zhongchai Holding are deemed to be those of the Company. Thus, the financial statements included in this Report reflect (i) the historical operating results of Zhongchai Holding prior to the Business Combination; (ii) the combined results of Zhongchai Holding and Greenland following the Business Combination in October 2019; (iii) the assets and liabilities of Zhongchai Holding at their historical cost, and (iv) Greenland’s equity structure for all periods presented. Zhongchai Holding received 7,500,000 shares of Greenland in exchange for all the share capital, which is reflected retroactively to December 31, 2017 and will be utilized for calculating earnings per share in all prior periods. No step-up basis of intangible assets or goodwill was recorded in the Business Combination transaction, which is consistent with the treatment of the transaction as a reverse recapitalization of Zhongchai Holding. 

 

2

 

 

Incorporation of HEVI Corp.

 

On January 14, 2020, HEVI Corp., formerly known as Greenland Technologies Corp. prior to May 2022, was incorporated under the laws of the state of Delaware. HEVI is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company and promotes sales of sustainable alternative products for the heavy industrial equipment industry, including electric industrial vehicles, in the North American market.

 

June 2021 Public Offering

 

On June 28, 2021, the Company entered into an underwriting agreement with Aegis Capital Corp., pursuant to which the Company agreed to sell to Aegis Capital Corp. in a firm commitment public offering 857,884 ordinary shares of the Company, for an offering price of $8.16 per share. The Company received $7.0 million in gross proceeds from this offering, before deducting underwriting discounts and other related offering expenses.

 

At-the-market Offering Agreement

 

On November 19, 2021, the Company entered into an at the market offering agreement with H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC, to create at an the market equity program pursuant to which the Company may offer and sell, from time to time, through or to H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC, the Company’s ordinary shares, no par value per share, having an aggregate gross offering price of up to $7.72 million. As of the date of this Report, no ordinary shares of the Company have been sold under the at the market offering agreement.

 

July 2022 Registered Direct Offering

 

On July 25, 2022, the Company entered into a securities purchase agreement with an investor, pursuant to which the Company agreed to issue and sell 1,250,000 ordinary shares and 398,974 pre-funded warrants (the “RD pre-funded warrants”), with each RD pre-funded warrant exercisable for one ordinary share of the Company, for an offering price of $4.17 per share and $4.169 per RD pre-funded warrant. The Company received $6.88 million in gross proceeds from that registered direct offering, before deducting placement agent fees and other related offering expenses.

 

July 2022 Private Placement

 

On July 25, 2022, the Company entered into another securities purchase agreement with an investor for a private placement offering of 616,026 pre-funded warrants and 4,530,000 common warrants. Each ordinary share and accompanying common warrants were sold together at a combined offering price of $5.089 per unit, with an exercise price per pre-funded warrant of $0.001 per share. The Company received $3.14 million in gross proceeds from that private placement, before deducting placement agent fees and other related offering expenses.

 

Formation of Hengyu Capital Limited

 

On August 16, 2022, Hengyu Capital Limited was formed in Hong Kong as a subsidiary of Zhongchai Holding (Hong Kong) Limited, which owns 62.5% equity interests in Hengyu Capital Limited. The remaining 37.5% of the equity interests of Hengyu Capital Limited are owned by the chairman of our board of directors, Mr. Peter Zuguang Wang. Hengyu Capital Limited does not have any business activities at this time.

 

Dissolution of Shanghai Hengyu Business Management Consulting Co., Ltd.

 

From the consummation of the Business Combination to July 2023, Shanghai Hengyu Business Management Consulting Co., Ltd., a company formed in the PRC, was an indirect subsidiary of the Company, in which the Company owns 62.5% equity interests. On July 10, 2023, Shanghai Hengyu Business Management Consulting Co., Ltd. was dissolved under the laws of the PRC.

 

Formation of Greenland Holding

 

On August 28, 2023, Greenland Holding was formed in the State of Delaware with no shares issued. On March 26, 2024, the Company entered into a share exchange agreement with Greenland Holding and Zhongchai Holding (the “2024 Share Exchange Agreement”), pursuant to which, on March 27, 2024, the Company transferred all the equity interests it held in Zhongchai Holding to Greenland Holding, and in return, Greenland Holding issued 100 shares to the Company, representing 100% of the issued and outstanding shares of Greenland Holding. As a result, Greenland Holding has become a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, which in turn holds 100% of the equity interests in Zhongchai Holding.

 

Announcement of Spin-off of Greenland Holding

 

On February 14, 2024, the Company announced its intent, as approved by its board of directors, to explore a separation of its electric industrial vehicles and drivetrain systems segments into two independent, publicly-traded companies by spinning off its drivetrain systems business.

 

3

 

 

Corporate Structure

 

The following diagram illustrates the current corporate structure of Greenland, including the jurisdiction of formation and ownership interest of each of its subsidiaries.

 

 

Greenland was incorporated on December 28, 2017 as a British Virgin Islands company with limited liability. As a result of the consummation of the Business Combination, Greenland serves as the parent company for Zhongchai Holding.

 

Greenland Holding was incorporated in the State of Delaware on August 28, 2023. Upon consummation of the share exchange as contemplated by the 2024 Share Exchange Agreement, Greenland Holding became a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, and holds 100% equity interests in Zhongchai Holding. As of the date of this Report, Greenland Holding has no business operations and acts as a holding company.

 

Zhongchai Holding was incorporated in Hong Kong on April 23, 2009. From April 23, 2009 to November 1, 2011, Zhongchai Holding was a subsidiary of Equicap, Inc., a Nevada corporation, with its stock quoted on the OTC Markets until July 29, 2011. 

 

HEVI was incorporated in the state of Delaware on January 14, 2020 as a wholly owned subsidiary of Greenland. HEVI promotes sales of sustainable alternative products for the heavy industrial equipment industry, including electric industrial vehicles, in the North American market.

 

Zhejiang Zhongchai, a 71.58% owned subsidiary of Zhongchai Holding, was formed in the PRC on November 21, 2005 and engages in the business of designing, manufacturing, and selling transmission products mainly for forklift trucks. 20.0% of the equity interests in Zhejiang Zhongchai is held by Xinchang County Jiuhe Enterprise Management (Limited Partnership), representing the collective equity interests of Zhejiang Zhongchai owned by its employees. The remaining 10.53% of Zhejiang Zhongchai’s capital stock is owned by Xinchang County Jiuxin Investment Management Partnership (LP) (“Jiuxin”), an entity owned by Mengxing He, director and general manager of Zhejiang Zhongchai.

 

Hangzhou Greenland, formerly known as Hangzhou Greenland Robotic Co., Ltd. prior to November 6, 2020 (“Hangzhou Greenland”), a wholly owned subsidiary of Zhongchai Holding, was formed in the PRC on August 9, 2019 and engages in the business of research and development of electric engineering vehicles, including electric forklifts, electric loading vehicles, electric digging vehicles, and other products. Hangzhou Greenland is also committed to product supply chain integration and overseas sales.

 

Hengyu Capital Limited, a 62.5% owned subsidiary of Zhongchai Holding, was formed in Hong Kong on August 16, 2022. Hengyu Capital Limited does not have any business activities at this time and will be engaging in the business of investing. The remaining 37.5% of the capital stock of Hengyu Capital Limited is owned by Peter Zuguang Wang, the chairman of our board of directors.

 

Products

 

Greenland provides transmission systems and integrated powertrains for material handling machineries, particularly for electric forklift trucks. In order to expand and diversify existing product offerings, Greenland recently entered into the electric industry vehicles market, by designing and developing electric industry vehicles.

 

4

 

 

Transmission products for material handling machineries

 

  

Transmission Systems. For 15 years, Greenland, along with its subsidiaries, specializes in designing, developing, and manufacturing a wide range of transmission systems for material handling machineries, in particular forklift trucks. The range of the transmission systems covers machineries from one ton to fifteen tons. Most transmission systems contain auto transmission features. This feature allows for easy machine operations. In addition, Greenland provides transmission system for internal combustion powered machineries as well as for electrical powered machineries. Greenland has recently experienced an increasing demand for electric powered transmission systems. These transmission systems are key components for material handling machinery assembly. To meet this increasing demand, Greenland is able to providing these transmission systems to major forklift truck original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”) as well as certain global branded manufacturers.

 

 

Integrated Powertrain. Through its PRC subsidiaries, Greenland designs and develops new and distinctive powertrains, which integrates electric motor, speed reduction gearbox, and driving axles into a combined integral module, in order to meet a growing demand for advanced electric forklift trucks. This integrated powertrain will enable the OEMs to significantly shorten design cycle, improve machinery efficiency, and simplify manufacturing process. There is a new trend that OEMs would rather use an integrated powertrain than separate electric motor, speed reduction gearbox, and driving axles, particularly in electric forklift trucks. Currently, Greenland makes two tons to three and a half-tons integrated powertrains for few electric forklift truck OEMs. Greenland is in the process of adding more integrated powertrain products for electric forklift truck OEMs with different sizes.

 

Electric Industrial Heavy Equipment

 

GEL-5000 Electric Wheel Loader

 

Offering all-electric clean and sustainable alternatives to traditional heavy-emission systems in the industrial heavy equipment industry, HEVI sells equipment that produce no operating emissions and reduced noise pollution while offering the strength and power for many applications. Assembled in Maryland, HEVI’s first product line includes the GEL-5000 and GEL-1800 electric wheeled front loader, the GEX-8000 electric excavator and the GEF-series of electric lithium forklifts.

 

5

 

 

GEL-5000

 

The GEL-5000 is a 39,683 lb. lithium powered all-electric wheeled front loader capable of supporting a 5.0-ton rated load. Its 282 kWh 620V lithium battery sourced from Contemporary Amperex Technology Co., Limited (“CATL”) produces the power to support eight hours of operation time and can be charged in as little as two hours.

 

GEL-1800

 

The GEL-1800 is a 11,464 lb. lithium powered all-electric wheeled front loader capable of supporting a 1.8-ton rated load. Its 141 kWh 620V CATL-sourced lithium battery produces the power to support nine hours of operation time and can be charged in as little as one and a half hours.

 

GEX-8000

 

The GEX-8000 is a 18,739 lb. lithium powered all-electric excavator capable of supporting an 8.0-ton rated load. Its 141 kWh 620V CATL-sourced lithium battery produces the power to support nine hours of operation time and can be charged in as little as one and a half hours.

 

The GEL-5000, GEL-1800 and GEX-8000 come standard with advanced systems such as an intelligent system diagnostic display, quick-hitch attachment system with a wide range of attachments and quality-of-life operation features that further add value to our customers.

 

GEF-Series Forklifts

 

HEVI offers the GEF-series of lithium powered electric forklifts that range in power from 1.5-ton to 3.5-ton rated load.

 

Charging Solutions

 

 

DCH-480-30 Mobile Direct Current (“DC”) Charger

 

HEVI has developed a line of DC mobile charging solutions that are designed for easy, flexible and cost-effective charging integration to support a DC-powered electric vehicle (“EV”) fleet at any powered work site. These solutions create a seamless adoption of HEVI’s electric heavy equipment or any compatible DC-powered EV into any existing fleet operation while creating another revenue stream for the HEVI business.

 

6

 

 

Recent Regulatory Developments

 

We are a holding company incorporated in the British Virgin Islands and not a Chinese operating company. As a holding company with no material operations of our own, we conduct our operations through our U.S. subsidiary, HEVI, and our PRC subsidiaries. We hold equity interests in our subsidiaries and do not currently use a variable interest entity (“VIE”) structure. Investors in our ordinary shares are purchasing equity interest in a British Virgin Islands holding company. As used in this Report, “we,” “us,” “our company,” or “our” refers to Greenland Technologies Holding Corporation and when describing the consolidated financial results of Greenland Technologies Holding Corporation and its subsidiaries, also includes its subsidiaries.

 

We and our PRC subsidiaries are subject to certain legal and operational risks associated with our PRC subsidiaries’ operations in China. PRC laws and regulations governing our PRC subsidiaries’ current business operations are sometimes vague and uncertain, and, as a result, these risks may result in material changes in the operations of our PRC subsidiaries, significant depreciation of the value of our ordinary shares, or a complete hindrance of our ability to offer or continue to offer our securities to investors. For instance, except for fulfilling the filing procedure with the China Securities Regulatory Commission, or the CSRC, in connection with future offerings, we believe that we and our PRC subsidiaries are currently not required to obtain any permission or approval from the CSRC and the Cyberspace Administration of China, or the CAC, in the PRC to offer securities to foreign investors.  However, there is no guarantee that this will continue to be the case in the future in relation to a follow-on offering or the continued listing of our securities on a U.S. securities exchange, or even in the event such permission or approval is required and obtained, it will not be subsequently revoked or rescinded. In the event that such approval is required in the future and we and/or our PRC subsidiaries do not receive or maintain such approval, our ordinary shares may significantly decline in value or become worthless, and our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors may be significantly limited or completely hindered.

 

In addition, we and our PRC subsidiaries are subject to risks and uncertainties of the interpretations and applications of PRC laws and regulations, including but not limited to, those imposing limitations on foreign ownership in the industry our PRC subsidiaries operate. We and our PRC subsidiaries are also subject to the risks and uncertainties about any future actions of the PRC government. If any future actions of the PRC government result in a material change in our PRC subsidiaries’ operations, the value of our ordinary shares may depreciate significantly or become worthless. See “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China — Uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system could adversely affect us and our PRC subsidiaries.”  

 

Recently, the PRC government adopted a series of regulatory actions and issued statements to regulate business operations in China, including cracking down on illegal activities in the securities market, enhancing supervision over China-based companies listed overseas using variable interest entity structure, adopting new measures to extend the scope of cybersecurity reviews, and expanding the efforts in anti-monopoly enforcement. As of the date of this Report, our Company and our PRC subsidiaries have not been involved in any investigations on cybersecurity review initiated by any PRC regulatory authority, nor has any of them received any inquiry, notice or sanction. As of the date of this Report, we and our PRC subsidiaries have not received any inquiry, notice, warning, or sanctions from the CSRC or any other PRC governmental authorities regarding the offering of our securities outside of the PRC.

 

7

 

 

On February 17, 2023, the CSRC published the Regulations of Trial Administrative Measures of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies (the “Trial Measures”) and its accompanying guidelines and instructions, which came into effect on March 31, 2023, and will apply if a domestic enterprise issues shares, depositary receipts, corporate bonds convertible into shares, or other securities of an equity nature outside of the PRC, or lists its securities for trading outside of the PRC. According to such regulations, a domestic enterprise that issues and lists its securities outside of the PRC shall comply with the filing procedures and report the relevant information to the CSRC. A domestic enterprise shall not be listed on an overseas stock exchange if any of the following circumstances exists: (i) where such securities offering and listing is explicitly prohibited by provisions in laws, administrative regulations and relevant state rules; (ii) where the intended securities offering and listing may endanger national security as reviewed and determined by competent authorities under the State Council in accordance with law; (iii) where the domestic company intending to make the securities offering and listing, or its controlling shareholders and the actual controller, have committed crimes such as corruption, bribery, embezzlement, misappropriation of property or undermining the order of the socialist market economy during the latest three years; (iv) where the domestic company intending to make the securities offering and listing is suspected of committing crimes or major violations of laws and regulations, and is under investigation according to law, and no conclusion has yet been made thereof; (v) where there are material ownership disputes over equity held by the domestic company’s controlling shareholder or by other shareholders that are controlled by the controlling shareholder and/or actual controller. The Trial Measures changes the management of licensing to record management, strengthen the supervision in the aftermath, create a more transparent and predictable institutional environment, and support the standardized development of enterprises using the overseas capital market. As such, we will be required to complete filing procedures with CSRC in connection with our future offerings. Additionally, we may be prohibited from continued listing if we fit into any of the five scenarios as discussed above. Furthermore, in the event that an approval from Chinese authorities is required for our future offerings or continued listing on Nasdaq, if we and/or our PRC subsidiaries do not receive or maintain required approvals, or we inadvertently conclude that such approvals are not required, or applicable laws, regulations, or interpretations change such that we and/or our PRC subsidiaries are required to obtain approval in the future, we and/or our PRC subsidiaries may be subject to an investigation by Chinese regulators, fines or penalties, or an order prohibiting us from conducting an offering, and these risks could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of our ordinary shares, significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors, or cause such securities to significantly decline in value or become worthless. In addition since these statements and regulatory actions are newly published, and official guidance and related implementation rules have not been issued, it is highly uncertain what the potential impact such modified or new laws and regulations will have on our subsidiaries’ daily business operation, the ability to accept foreign investments and our ability to continue our listing on a U.S. exchange. See “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China — Our PRC subsidiaries may be liable for improper use or appropriation of personal information provided by their customers and any failure to comply with PRC laws and regulations over data security could result in materially adverse impact on our business, results of operations, and our continued listing on Nasdaq.”

 

Although we are not currently owned or controlled by a governmental entity in any foreign jurisdiction, the PRC government has exercised, and continues to exercise, substantial control over virtually every sector of the Chinese economy through regulation and state ownership, including the steel sector where our PRC subsidiaries have been conducting their business. Any government decisions or actions to change the steel production, or any decisions the government might make to cut spending, could adversely impact our PRC subsidiaries’ business and our results of operations. We believe that our PRC subsidiaries’ operations in China are in material compliance with all applicable legal and regulatory requirements. However, the central or local governments of the jurisdictions in which our PRC subsidiaries operate may impose new, stricter regulations or interpretations of existing regulations with little advance notice that could require additional expenditures and efforts on our part to ensure our and our PRC subsidiaries’ compliance with such regulations or interpretations. Furthermore, the PRC government authorities may continue to strengthen oversight and control over offerings that are conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in China-based issuers like us. Such actions taken by the PRC government authorities may intervene or influence the operations of our PRC subsidiaries at any time, which may be beyond our control. Therefore, any such action may adversely affect the operations of our PRC subsidiaries and significantly limit or hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to you and reduce the value of such securities or cause the value of such securities to be completely worthless. See “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China — The PRC government exerts substantial influence over the manner in which our PRC subsidiaries must conduct their business activities. If the Chinese government significantly regulates the business operations of our PRC subsidiaries in the future and our PRC subsidiaries are not able to substantially comply with such regulations, the business operations of our PRC subsidiaries may be materially and adversely affected and the value of our ordinary shares may significantly decrease.”

 

Trading in our securities may be prohibited under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or the HFCA Act, if Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (the “PCAOB”) determines that it cannot inspect or fully investigate our auditor, and that as a result, an exchange may determine to delist our securities. The PCAOB has been able to inspect our auditor, WWC P.C., an independent registered public accounting firm with its headquarters in San Mateo, California, and its latest inspection has been ongoing since November 2023. See “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China — A recent joint statement by the SEC and the PCAOB, proposed rule changes submitted by Nasdaq, and the HFCA Act all call for additional and more stringent criteria to be applied to emerging market companies upon assessing the qualification of their auditors, especially the non-U.S. auditors who are not inspected by the PCAOB.”

 

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Trading in our securities may be prohibited under the HFCA Act if the PCAOB determines that it cannot inspect or fully investigate our auditor, and that as a result, an exchange may determine to delist our securities. On June 22, 2021, the U.S. Senate passed the Accelerating Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act and on December 29, 2022, a legislation entitled “Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2023” (the “Consolidated Appropriations Act”) was signed into law by President Biden, which contained, among other things, an identical provision to Accelerating Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act and amended the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act by requiring the SEC to prohibit an issuer’s securities from trading on any U.S. stock exchanges if its auditor is not subject to PCAOB inspections for two consecutive years instead of three, thus reducing the time period before our securities may be prohibited from trading or delisted. The PCAOB has been able to inspect our auditor, WWC P.C., an independent registered public accounting firm with its headquarters in San Mateo, California, and its latest inspection has been ongoing since November 2023. On December 16, 2021, the PCAOB issued a report to notify the SEC of its determinations that it is unable to inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms headquartered in Mainland China and Hong Kong, respectively, and identifies the registered public accounting firms in Mainland China and Hong Kong that are subject to such determinations. Our auditor is not subject to the determinations announced by the PCAOB on December 16, 2021. On August 26, 2022, the CSRC, the Ministry of Finance (the “MOF”), and the PCAOB signed the Protocol, governing inspections and investigations of audit firms based in China and Hong Kong. The Protocol remains unpublished and is subject to further explanation and implementation. Pursuant to the fact sheet with respect to the Protocol disclosed by the SEC, the PCAOB shall have independent discretion to select any issuer audits for inspection or investigation and has the unfettered ability to transfer information to the SEC. On December 15, 2022, the PCAOB Board determined that the PCAOB was able to secure complete access to inspect and investigate registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong and voted to vacate its previous determinations to the contrary. However, should PRC authorities obstruct or otherwise fail to facilitate the PCAOB’s access in the future, the PCAOB Board will consider the need to issue a new determination. See “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China — A recent joint statement by the SEC and the PCAOB, proposed rule changes submitted by Nasdaq, and the HFCA Act all call for additional and more stringent criteria to be applied to emerging market companies upon assessing the qualification of their auditors, especially the non-U.S. auditors who are not inspected by the PCAOB.”

 

Dividend Policy and Cash Transfers

 

We intend to retain all of our available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and growth of our business. As such, we do not expect to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. We are permitted under PRC laws and regulations to provide funding to our PRC subsidiaries only through loans or capital contributions, and only if we satisfy the applicable government registration and approval requirements.

 

Our PRC subsidiaries are permitted to pay dividends only out of their retained earnings. However, each of our PRC subsidiaries is required to set aside at least 10% of its after-tax profits each year, after making up for previous year’s accumulated losses, if any, to fund certain statutory reserves, until the aggregate amount of such funds reaches 50% of registered capital. This portion of our PRC subsidiaries’ respective net assets are prohibited from being distributed to their shareholders as dividends. However, none of our PRC subsidiaries has made any dividends or distributions to our holding company or any U.S. investors as of the date of this Report. See “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China — We may rely on dividends paid by our subsidiaries for our cash needs, and any limitation on the ability of our subsidiaries to make payments to us could have a material adverse effect on our ability to conduct business.”

  

In addition, the PRC government imposes controls on the convertibility of Renminbi into foreign currencies and, in certain cases, the remittance of currency out of China. If the foreign exchange control system prevents us from obtaining sufficient foreign currencies to satisfy our foreign currency demands, we may not be able to pay dividends in foreign currencies to our shareholders. See “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China — Governmental control of currency conversion may limit our ability to utilize our revenues effectively and affect the value of your investment.”

 

A 10% PRC withholding tax is applicable to dividends payable to investors that are non-resident enterprises. Any gain realized on the transfer of ordinary shares by such investors is also subject to PRC tax at a current rate of 10%, which in case of dividends will be withheld at source if such gain is regarded as income derived from sources within the PRC. See “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China — Under the PRC EIT Law, we may be classified as a ‘Resident Enterprise’ of China. Any classification as such will likely result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our non-PRC shareholders.”

 

We have adopted written cash management policies and procedures that dictate how funds are transferred within our organization. According to such policies and procedures, each subsidiary of the Company may initiate a cash transfer request by timely filling out a fund application form, which shall be signed by the financial principal and the principal of the subsidiary and then submitted to the financial department of the Company for approval. After a cash transfer request is approved by the financial department, the relevant subsidiary may proceed to initiate such transfer. Our Company distributed cash as loans to our subsidiaries. Several cash transfers have been made between our Company and our subsidiaries. As of December 31, 2023, our Company provided a loan of $7,457,076 to Zhongchai Holding. 

 

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Competitive Strengths

 

Greenland believes that it is in the right position and the right time to supply a new generation of industrial heavy equipment, including electric industrial vehicles, that is green, safe, and cost-effective. The following is a summary of Greenland’s competitive strengths.

 

Favorable Market Trends

 

Greenland believes that a number of key industry trends in the PRC will continue to benefit Greenland and its subsidiaries and continue to drive its growth, including:

 

  increasingly stringent regulations over carbon emission, which urge market participants to adopt low or zero-emission material handling and construction equipment;
     
  increasing demand for a safer work environment and better healthy worker’s condition will drive growth of electric material handling equipment or industry vehicle, which generates no exhausts and a low level of noise in operation;
     
  increasing labor cost, which accelerates labor substitution with machinery in material handling and logistic activities;
     
  strong competitiveness of U.S. branded products in the U.S., in which the next generation of electric industrial vehicles will be assembled and sold;
     
  increasing government support for improving efficiency in the PRC’s logistics industry, which is a key market for material handling machinery such as forklifts and loaders; and
     
  increasing government support for logistic mechanization, including in the form of subsidies.

 

As a result of these favorable industry trends, Greenland believes that it is well-positioned to capitalize on the increasing market demand for transmission products in the PRC as well as on the growing demand for emission-free and labor substitution by electric vehicles in the United States.

 

Well-Developed Manufacturing Capabilities Leading to Higher Efficiency

 

Greenland’s well-developed manufacturing process contributes to manufacturing efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Specifically, a combination of modern operational and management systems, advanced manufacturing equipment, experienced manufacturing know-hows, skilled workforce, and flexible manufacturing system allows Greenland to shorten the “time to market” for its new products. Moreover, the combination allows Greenland to timely adjust its lines of products in anticipation of changes in market demands.

 

Robust Research and Product Development Capabilities

 

Research and product development capabilities have been critical to Greenland’s historical growth and current market position. Greenland’s research and development team is comprised of more than 17 professionals, or over 5% of Greenland’s employees. Greenland’s research and development facilities consist of a transmission technology center and an electric industry vehicle center. The transmission technology center is accredited by the Zhejiang provincial government. The technology center is made up of a product development and design department, a research center, three research departments that focuses on design, application, and manufacturing of internal combustion engines, and a post-doctoral workstation certified by the PRC Ministry of Human Resource and Social Security.

  

Strategic Service Network

 

The ability to provide timely after-sales services is critical in building and maintaining a loyal and solid customer base. We have strategically established an after-sales service network in locations with developed economies. For example, the eastern provinces of the PRC generally have significant demand for logistics services. Accordingly, Greenland, through its subsidiaries, has operated an in-house service center and retained service providers that conduct businesses predominantly in these regions. Users of Greenland’s products are able to reach Greenland through a service line, through which Greenland is able to provide prompt on-site technical services.

 

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Experienced Management Team with Successful Track Records

 

Greenland’s senior management team is comprised of individuals who have operational experience, market knowledge, international management skill, and technical expertise. In addition, each member of the senior management team has a proven track record in building and turning companies into successful enterprises.

 

  Peter Zuguang Wang has served as the sole director of Zhongchai Holding since April 2009 and the chairman of the board of directors of Zhejiang Zhongchai since September 2017. He has over 30 years of experience in technology and management, along with a unique background in research and development, operation, finance and management. Mr. Wang is the chief executive officer of Cenntro Electric Group Limited (Nasdaq: CENN) and the co-founder of Unitech Telecom (now a part of UTStarcom, Nasdaq: UTSI).
     
  Raymond Z. Wang has served as our chief executive officer since October 2019, the chief executive officer of Zhongchai Holding since April 2019, and the chief executive officer of HEVI Corp since January 2020. From February 2019 to November 2020, Mr. Wang served as Chairman of the board of ONE Project, a non-profit organization that unifies local communities to collectively tackle social issues such as hunger. From November 2017 to March 2019, Mr. Wang was the President of Devirra Corporation, a warehousing management and logistic company. From August 2007 to July 2017, Mr. Wang worked as the Vice President at Bank of America Merrill Lynch, developing a client acquisition channel for an online platform. From December 2005 to March 2007, Mr. Wang served as the Financial Advisor at Cowan Financial Group, a full-service financial planning and consulting firm, in New York. Mr. Wang received his Bachelor’s degree in Economics from Rutgers University.
     
  Jing Jin has served as our chief financial officer since October 2019. Mr. Jin is a Certified Public Account and has over 10 years of experience in accounting, budgeting, and financial planning across operations in the PRC and overseas. Prior to August 2019, Mr. Jin has also served as the chief financial officer of Tantech Holdings Ltd. (Nasdaq: TANH), manufacturer of bamboo-based charcoal products in the PRC, from May 2016 to June 2019. From January 2014 to February 2015, Mr. Jin served as Senior Adviser for AAIC (Shanghai) Co., Ltd., a consulting company in the PRC, responsible for overseeing M&A transactions. From September 2011 to November 2013, he worked as a senior financial adviser in CanAccess Int’l Financial Consultants Ltd. in Vancouver, Canada, responsible for small-medium enterprises’ financing both in private and public sectors. From December 2008 to August 2011, Mr. Jin was an audit associate at MaloneBailey, LLP, an accounting firm, in its offices in Canada and the PRC. Mr. Jin graduated from Simon Fraser University in June 2008 in Burnaby, Canada with a Bachelor of Business Administration degree.

 

Customers

 

Greenland, through its subsidiaries, sells most of its transmission products in the PRC and electric industrial heavy equipment in the U.S. Its customer bases are primarily in the businesses of material handling equipment and forklift trucks. Greenland believes that its customers include some of the leading manufacturers in their respective market segments. Greenland also supplies transmission products to the PRC subsidiaries of a number of blue-chip international brands based in Europe and Asia.

 

During the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, Greenland’s five largest customers contributed 45.06% and 50.85%, respectively, of its total revenues. For the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, Greenland’s single largest customer, Hangcha Group, accounted for 14.98% and 17.14%, respectively, of Greenland’s total revenue, and Greenland’s second largest customer, Longgong Forklift Truck, accounted for 11.75% and 14.14%, respectively, of Greenland’s total revenue.

  

Suppliers

 

Greenland purchases its raw materials from various suppliers for use in the manufacture of its products.

 

The key raw materials used to manufacture its products are processed metal-based parts and components, including iron castings and gears, which are purchased from our domestic suppliers in the PRC. Most of our suppliers are located within close proximity to our manufacturing facilities, which reduces our transportation and inventory costs.

 

The prices for iron and steel and other raw materials have historically fluctuated significantly in the PRC, which in turn has affected the Company’s business and operation results. Greenland closely monitors changes in raw material prices and seeks to adjust its inventory of raw materials during inflation periods. In addition, Greenland seeks to minimize the impact of fluctuations in raw material prices by adopting bidding processes in its raw material procurement process Greenland also seeks to price its products to reflect the expected fluctuations in raw material prices to the extent possible. However, there can be no assurance that Greenland could precisely estimate any increase in raw material price or pass on such increase to its customers.

  

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HEVI purchases components, electronics, battery systems and metal-based parts for use in the assembly of its electric industrial heavy equipment from various suppliers based in the PRC. These items are transported to the United States for assembly of the final products.

 

HEVI seeks to price its products to reflect expected increases in the component prices and transportation costs to the extent possible. However, there can be no assurance that HEVI could precisely estimate any increase in components or pass on such increase to its customers.

 

Production

 

Greenland’s transmission products are comprised of a number of major parts and components, including gearbox housing, gears, bearings, oil pumps, gear shafts, hydraulics, electric forklifts, wheeled excavators, and electrical components. The gearbox housing and gears parts are processed in-house at its manufacturing facility in Xinchang County, Zhejiang Province, the PRC. Components of such products, in general, are sourced, from third parties, assembled, and integrated to form finished products. The finished products then undergo further adjustments, fine tunings, testing, and quality inspections. At the end of the inspection process and prior to shipment to our warehouses for storage and distribution, the finished products are coated and painted.

 

Greenland’s electric industrial heavy equipment is manufactured and assembled in its 54,000 square foot industrial electric vehicle assembly site in Baltimore, Maryland.

 

Inventory and Warehousing

 

Greenland undertakes inventory control in order to reduce the risks of under and over-stocking. On average, Greenland typically maintains a 30 days stock piles for production needs. It generally increases its inventories toward the end of the year in order to meet any production demand, in anticipation of any demands increase, from the second quarter of the following year. Furthermore, Greenland maintains higher inventories at year-end because Chinese New Year typically falls in January or February, which affects production and transportation of raw materials. Greenland has installed an enterprise resource planning (“ERP”) system, which provides real-time information about purchases, production schedules, and supplies of the raw materials. The ERP system has substantially improved Greenland’s inventory controls, providing the Company with quick access to various data and easy formulation of operating models, and allowing the Company to keep its inventory at an appropriable level to facilitate the manufacturing process.

 

Research and Development

 

Greenland’s research and development team selects research or development projects or both and draws up preliminary project proposals based on various factors, such as industry and market trends, customer feedback, and input from other departments (i.e. finance and manufacturing departments).

 

Greenland’s management, including the heads and lead managers of various internal departments, such as sales and marketing and finance departments, as well as its chief executive officer and chief technology officer, reviews the preliminary project proposals and its research and development team formulates a final plan for each approved project after considering suggestions and comments by its management. The final plans will include detailed schedules and budgets for the projects. Greenland’s finance department monitors budget overruns. Any increase in the original budget must be reviewed and approved by management before the relevant project can continue.

 

Greenland has also focused on research and development with respect to its electric industrial equipment and related products. Greenland’s electric industrial heavy equipment products currently include GEF-series electric forklifts, a series of lithium powered forklifts with three models ranging in size from 1.8 tons to 3.5 tons, and GEL-1800, a 1.8 ton rated load lithium powered electric wheeled front loader and GEX-8000, an all-electric 8.0 ton rated load lithium powered wheeled excavator. These products have become available for purchase in the U.S. market.

 

Greenland, through HEVI, continues to focus its research and development efforts on its next generation of electric industrial heavy equipment along with supporting products such as mobile charging units and attachments that will increase the value of its portfolio.

  

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Intellectual Property

 

Greenland relies on a combination of trademark, copyright, patent, software registration, and trade secret laws to protect its intellectual property rights. Despite these precautions, it may be possible for third parties to infringe our Company’s intellectual property rights.

 

Patents

 

As of December 31, 2023, Greenland held 109 registered patents with the PRC National Intellectual Property Administration (“CNIPA”), 94 of which are utility patents and 15 of which are invention patents. These patents relate to the manufacturing of products.

  

Trademarks

 

As of December 31, 2023, Greenland had been granted two trademarks registered with the CNIPA.

 

As of the date of this Report, Greenland has not registered any intellectual properties in the U.S.

 

Greenland’s intellectual property also includes technical data such as test results and operating data from projects, drawings, designs, and machinery and manufacturing techniques it developed in-house.

 

Sales and Marketing

 

Greenland sells its products through its sales and marketing teams. To promote Greenland’s brand, sales employees also attend trade shows and exhibitions to showcase our products.

 

As of December 31, 2023, Greenland’s sales and marketing team consisted of 10 employees, with six (6) members in the PRC and four (4) in the U.S. Members of its sales and marketing teams have extensive experience and knowledge in the material handling equipment sector of the manufacturing industry. They are primarily responsible for identifying business opportunities, promoting products, collecting customer feedbacks and market information, bidding for or negotiating orders, and collecting payments.

 

Competition

 

Transmission Industry

 

The transmission industry is fragmented and highly competitive in the PRC. Under the current market trend, domestically produced transmissions account for the largest share of the PRC market. International brand manufacturers equipped with better technology and capital resources are also aiming to expand into the PRC. As a result, it is expected that the PRC transmission market will become more competitive.

 

The typical competitive criteria are quality, price, technology, after-sales service, product offering, and performance record. The transmissions market is capital intensive. In addition, the manufacturing process requires technical expertise and significant research and development budgets. As a result, companies entering the market must have significant financial and technical resources. Moreover, the time and cost required to establish a proven track record, necessary for general market acceptance, are substantial. An extensive after-sales service network is essential for a company to gain general market acceptance.

 

Greenland believes that it is able to compete based on its market position, strong research and development capabilities, high quality products, integrated service systems, and strong relationships with its customers.

 

Our key competitors are Shaoxing Advance Gearbox Co., Ltd., Changsha Zhongchuan Transmission Machinery Co. Ltd., and Ganzhou Wuhuan Machine Co., Ltd.

  

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Electric Industrial Heavy Equipment Industry

 

Utilizing Greenland’s expertise in manufacturing and R&D, it established HEVI in January 2020 to create clean and sustainable products and services in the heavy industrial equipment industry that help organizations pursue a carbon neutral operation. HEVI designs, develops, and manufactures electric heavy industrial equipment and accessories and sells them directly to the end consumers in various markets in the United States. HEVI’s product line available for purchase includes the GEL-5000 all-electric lithium 5.0-ton rated load wheeled front loader, GEL-1800 all-electric lithium 1.8-ton rated load wheeled front loader, the GEX-8000 all-electric lithium 8.0-ton rated load excavator, and the GEF-series of electric lithium forklifts. In August 2022, HEVI launched a 54,000 square foot industrial electric vehicle assembly site in Baltimore, Maryland to support local assembly, services and distribution of its product line.

 

Fast Growing Market. The global construction equipment market is anticipated to grow at a compound annual growth rate (“CAGR”) of 3.9% from 2020 to 2025, reaching US$205 billion, according to a November 2020 report published by MarketsandMarkets. The North American market is projected to exhibit one of the fastest growth rates during the forecast period. Consequently, we believe this growth will increase with the introduction of the United State infrastructure overhaul program. Should the program be implemented, then it will be a powerful driver of growth in the engineering and construction industry that will proliferate the demand for industrial equipment.

 

Call for Carbon Emission Reduction. Global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas and carbon emissions continue to grow with proposals such as the current U.S. administration seeking a target of net zero emission by 2050. These strategies will result in government and public support for the adoption of emission zero technologies and equipment across industries thus boosting the demand for eco-friendly electric powered industrial heavy equipment. As such, we expect that the demand for electric industrial heavy equipment will increase rapidly.

 

Highly Fragmented and Emerging Market. The electric industrial heavy equipment market is highly fragmented with few, if any, dominant local market participants. Although a few conventional industrial heavy equipment and construction equipment makers are in the process of electric products development, a majority are years away from product deployment. This is to avoid cannibalization with the mature fossil fuel-powered equipment product lines which results in the lack of incentive to launch the full-electric industrial heavy equipment at the near term. As a result, with the early mover advantage together with Greenland’s strong research and development capability, we believe that Greenland is well-positioned to secure a meaningful role in the electric industrial heavy equipment market.

 

High Technology Barriers for New Entrants. To compete in the electric industrial heavy equipment market, enterprises need a high-level of core technologies and capabilities in order to successfully develop a commercial product. The investment and expertise required create a high barrier of entry for new market players. Greenland’s success in the material handling industry and its achievements in research and development milestones gives Greenland the opportunity and the competitive edge to successfully compete in the industrial heavy equipment market.

 

Distribution Barriers for Market Leaders. Traditional OEMs in the industrial heavy equipment industry sell through established dealership models which have been proven to be difficult to adapt to electric alternatives. These dealerships rely heavily on service/maintenance revenue. As electric products require over 40% less of maintenance costs, it is challenging for OEMs to motivate their dealers to promote and service the new technology. Without a dealer network to cater to, we believe Greenland is well-positioned to establish a meaningful role in the electric industrial heavy equipment market.

 

Our key competitors in the industrial heavy equipment industry are the traditional diesel-powered industrial heavy equipment manufacturers such as Caterpillar, Volvo CE and John Deere.

 

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Employees

 

As of December 31, 2023, the total number of full-time employees employed at Greenland and its subsidiaries was 325, with 314 employees located in the PRC and 11 employees located in the U.S. The following table sets forth the number of its full-time employees by function as of December 31, 2023:

 

Function  Number 
Management   6 
Administration   9 
Production   273 
Research and development   17 
Sales and marketing   10 
Other   10 
Total   325 

 

Greenland maintains mandatory social security insurance for its employees pursuant to Chinese laws. Furthermore, it contributes mandatory social security funds for employees with respect to retirement, medical, work-related injury, maternity, and unemployment benefits. Greenland has also included retirement plans for its employees in the U.S., including social security and pension along with medical, vision, dental, workers compensation, work-related injury and maternity benefits.

 

Greenland believes that its success and continued growth depend on its ability to attract, retain, and motivate qualified employees. Greenland offers its employees competitive salaries, comprehensive training, and other fringe benefits and incentives. None of our employees are represented by labor unions, and no collective bargaining agreement has been put in place. Greenland has not had any labor strikes or other labor disturbances that have materially interfaced with its operations, and it believes that it has maintained a good work relationship with its employees.

 

Regulations

 

PRC Law and Regulation

 

Policy Relating to the Foreign Invested General Equipment Manufacturing Industry

 

The PRC implements its guidance on foreign investment in different industries through the Catalogue for the Guidance of Foreign Investment Industries and the Special Administrative Measures (Negative List) for Foreign Investment Access jointly amended and promulgated by the National Development and Reform Commission and the Ministry of Commerce from time to time. According to the Catalogue of Encouraged Industries for Foreign Investment (Edition 2022) and the Special Administrative Measures (Negative List) for Foreign Investment Access (Edition 2021) currently in force, the business activities that we engage in are not classified as “prohibited” or “restricted” foreign invested industries.

 

Law and Regulation Relating to Product Quality

 

Pursuant to the Product Quality Law of the PRC which was promulgated on February 22, 1993 and amended on December 29, 2018, it is prohibited to produce or sell products that do not meet the standards or requirement for safeguarding human health and ensuring human and property safety.

 

Where a defective product causes physical injury to a person or damage to property, the aggrieved party may claim compensation against the producer or the seller of such product. Where the responsibility for product defects lies with the producer, the seller shall, after settling compensation, have the right to recover such compensation from the producer, and vice versa. Violations of the Product Quality Law may result in the imposition of fines. In addition, the seller or the producer may be ordered to suspend operation and its business license may be revoked. Criminal liability may be incurred in serious cases.

 

Law and Regulation Relating to Production Safety

 

Pursuant to the Production Safety Law of the PRC (the “Production Safety Law”) promulgated by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress on June 29, 2002, last amended on June 10, 2021 and effective on September 1, 2021, enterprises and institutions shall be equipped with the conditions for safe production as provided in the Production Safety Law and other relevant laws, administrative regulations, national standards and industrial standards. Any entity that is not equipped with such conditions is not allowed to engage in production and business operation activities. 

 

The law also requires manufacturers to offer education and training programs to their employees regarding production safety and to hire qualified employees who have completed special trainings to engage in specialized operations. Manufacturers are required to provide protection equipment that meets the national or industry standards to employees and to supervise and educate them regarding the use of such equipment. In addition, the design, manufacture, installation, use, inspection and maintenance of safety equipment are required to conform to applicable national or industry standards. Furthermore, emergency measures shall be established by an enterprise to prepare for the occurrence of any accidents threatening safe production.

 

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Law and Regulation Relating to Environmental Protection

 

The laws and regulations governing the environmental requirements for all units that cause environmental pollution and other public hazards in the PRC include, but are not limited to, the Environmental Protection Law of the People’s Republic of China, the Environmental Impact Assessment Law of the People’s Republic of China, and the Administrative Regulations on Environmental Protection for Construction Projects. Pursuant to these laws and regulations, depending on the impacts on the environment caused by the project, environmental impact assessment documents shall be submitted by a developer for approval or record at the required time. In addition, a construction project for which an environment impact report or environment impact statement is formulated shall be put into production or use only when its complementary environmental protection facilities pass acceptance inspection.

 

Law and Regulation Relating to Labor Protection

 

Pursuant to the Labor Law of the PRC and the Labor Contract Law of the PRC which came into effect on January 1, 1995 (amended on December 29, 2018) and January 1, 2008 (amended on December 28, 2012), respectively, labor contracts shall be concluded if labor relationships are to be established between the employer and the employees.

 

Pursuant to the Social Insurance Law of the PRC which was promulgated on October 28, 2010 and last amended on December 29, 2018, employees shall participate in basic pension insurance, basic medical insurance and unemployment insurance. Basic pension, medical and unemployment insurance contributions shall be paid by both employers and employees. Employees shall also participate in work-related injury insurance and maternity insurance. Work-related injury insurance and maternity insurance contributions shall be paid by employers rather than employees. An employer shall make registration with the local social insurance agency in accordance with the provisions of the Social Insurance Law of PRC. Moreover, an employer shall declare and make social insurance contributions in full and on time. Pursuant to the Regulations on Management of Housing Provident Fund which was promulgated on April 3, 1999 and amended on March 24, 2019, employers shall undertake registration at the competent administrative center of housing provident fund and then, undergo the procedures of opening the account of housing provident fund for their employees. Enterprises are also obliged to timely pay and deposit housing provident fund for their employees in full amount.

 

Law and Regulation Relating to Tax

 

Enterprise Income Tax

 

On March 16, 2007 and December 6, 2007 respectively, the National People’s Congress of China and the State Council of the PRC (the “State Council”) enacted the Enterprise Income Tax Law of the PRC and the Implementation Regulations of Enterprise Income Tax Law of the PRC (collectively the “PRC EIT Law”), both of which became effective on January 1, 2008 (amended successively from 2017 to 2019). The PRC EIT Law imposes a uniform enterprise income tax rate of 25% on all residence enterprises, including foreign-invested enterprises, and terminates most of the tax exemptions, reductions and preferential treatments available under previous tax laws and regulations. 

 

However, the PRC EIT Law and its implementation rules permit certain “high-technology enterprises strongly supported by the state” which hold independent ownership of core intellectual property and simultaneously meet a list of other criteria, financial or non-financial, as stipulated in the Implementation Rules, to enjoy a 15% enterprise income tax rate subject to certain new qualification criteria. The State Administration of Taxation (the “SAT”), the PRC Ministry of Science and Technology and the MOF jointly issued the Administrative Rules for the Certification of High and New Technology Enterprise delineating the specific criteria and procedures for “high and new technology enterprises” certification.

 

Withholding Tax

 

The PRC EIT Law removes the prior tax exemption and imposes a 10% withholding tax on dividends paid by foreign-invested enterprises to foreign investors. However, for foreign investors whose home countries or regions have signed bilateral tax agreements with PRC, the withholding tax rate may be reduced to as low as 5% depending on the terms of the applicable tax treaty. In accordance with the Arrangement between Mainland PRC and Hong Kong for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income signed on August 21, 2006, the 5% withholding tax rate applies to dividends paid by a PRC company to a Hong Kong tax resident, provided that the recipient is a company that holds directly at least 25% of the interest of the PRC company, otherwise, the applicable withholding tax rate should be 10%. Further, pursuant to the Notice on the Issues concerning the Application of the Dividend Clauses of Tax Agreements issued by the SAT on February 20, 2009, the preferential tax rate under the relevant tax treaties shall only apply to a tax resident from the other side that directly holds at least 25% of the interest of a PRC company for a period of consecutive 12 months prior to receiving the dividends.

 

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Value Added Tax

 

The Provisional Regulations of the PRC Concerning Value Added Tax (the “VAT Regulations”) was promulgated on December 13, 1993 and amended by the State Council and became effect on November 19, 2017. Under the VAT Regulations and its implementation regulations, value added tax, or the VAT, is imposed on the sales of goods and provision of processing, repair and replacement services within the PRC and the importation of goods into the PRC. The VAT standard rates had been 17% for taxpayers who have VAT taxable sales activities and 11% for taxpayers who imported goods until April 30, 2018, after which date the rates were reduced to 16% and 10%, respectively. The VAT rates was further reduced to 13% and 9%, respectively, starting from April 1, 2019.

 

Regulations of Trial Administrative Measures of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies

 

On February 17, 2023, the CSRC published the Regulations of Trial Administrative Measures of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies (the “Trial Measures”) and its accompanying guidelines and instructions, which will come into effect on March 31, 2023, and will apply if a domestic enterprise issues shares, depositary receipts, corporate bonds convertible into shares, or other securities of an equity nature outside of the PRC, or lists its securities for trading outside of the PRC. According to such regulations, a domestic enterprise that issues and lists its securities outside of the PRC shall comply with the filing procedures and report the relevant information to the CSRC. Where a domestic company fails to fulfill filing procedure, offers and lists securities in an overseas market in violation of the Trial Measures, or the filing documents contain misrepresentation, misleading statement or material omission, the CSRC shall order rectification, issue warning to such domestic company, and impose a fine.

 

Under the PRC EIT Law, enterprises are classified as either “resident enterprises” or “non-resident enterprises.” Pursuant to PRC EIT Law and its implementation rules, besides enterprises established within the PRC, enterprises established outside PRC whose “de facto management bodies” are located in PRC are considered “resident enterprises” for PRC enterprise income tax purposes and subject to the uniform 25% enterprise income tax rate for their global income. According to the implementation rules of the PRC EIT Law, “de facto management body” refers to a managing body that exercises, in substance, overall management and control over the manufacture and business, personnel, accounting and assets of an enterprise.

 

Law and Regulation Relating to Intellectual Property Rights

 

Copyright Law

 

According to the Copyright Law of the PRC, which was amended on November 11, 2020 and became effective on June 1, 2021, Chinese citizens, legal entities or other organizations shall enjoy the copyright in their works, whether published or not, which include original intellectual achievements in the fields of literature, art and science which can be expressed in a certain form. Copyright owners shall enjoy various kinds of rights, including the right of publication, right of authorship and right of reproduction.

 

Patent Law

 

Pursuant to the Patent Law of the PRC which was amended on October 17, 2020 and became effective on June 1, 2021, the patent administration departments of the State Council are responsible for the administration of patents across the nation. The patent administration departments of provincial, autonomous region or municipal governments are responsible for administering patents within their respective jurisdictions. The PRC patent system adopts a “first come, first file” principle, which means where more than one person files a patent application for the same invention, a patent will be granted to the person who files the application first. To be patentable, invention or utility models must meet three criteria: novelty, inventiveness and practicability. Invention patents are valid for 20 years, while utility model patents are valid for 10 years and design patents are valid for 15 years, commencing from the date of application. The patentee shall pay annual fees commencing from the year when the parent right is granted. If the patentee does not pay annual fees according to the requirements, the patent will be terminated prior to its expiry. Other person must obtain consent or a proper license from the patent owner to use the patent. Otherwise, the use constitutes an infringement of the patent rights. The infringer must, in accordance with the applicable regulations, undertake to cease the infringement, take remedial action and/or pay damages.

 

Trademark Law

 

Pursuant to the Trademark Law of the PRC which was amended on April 23, 2019 and became effective on November 1, 2019, the right to exclusive use of a registered trademark shall be limited to trademarks which have been approved for registration and to commodities for which the use of trademark has been approved. The period of validity of a registered trademark shall be 10 years, counted from the day the registration is approved. If a trademark registrant wishes to use a trademark after the expiration of the duration of the trademark registration, according to the requirements, a registration renewal application should be filed within 12 months prior to the expiration. Each registration renewal is valid for 10 years. Using a trademark that is identical with a registered trademark on the same commodities without the licensing of the registrant of the registered trademark; or using a trademark that is similar to a registered trademark on the same commodities, or using a trademark that is identical with or similar to the registered trademark on similar commodities without the licensing of the registrant of the registered trademark, which is likely to cause confusion; selling commodities that infringe upon the exclusive right to use a registered trademark; forging, manufacturing a registered trademark which was registered by others without authorization, or selling a registered trademark forged or manufactured without authorization; changing a registered trademark and putting the commodities with the changed trademark into the market without the consent of the registrant of the registered trademark; providing, intentionally, convenience for activities infringing upon others’ exclusive right to use a registered trademark, and facilitating others to commit infringement on the exclusive right to use a registered trademark, constitutes an infringement of the exclusive right to use a registered trademark. The infringer must undertake to cease the infringement, take remedial action and pay damages. The infringer also may be subject to fines or even criminal punishment.

 

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Domain Names

 

The domain names are protected under the Administrative Measures for Internet Domain Names promulgated by Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, or the MIIT, on August 24, 2017, the effective date of which was November 1, 2017. MIIT is the major regulatory body responsible for the administration of the PRC Internet domain names, under supervision of which PRC Internet Network Information Center, or CNNIC, is responsible for the daily administration of CN domain names and Chinese domain names On June 18, 2019, CNNIC promulgated the Implementing Rules for the Registration of National Top-level Domain Names, the Measures for the Resolution of Disputes over National Top-level Domain Names and the Procedures for the Resolution of Disputes over National Top-level Domain Names in accordance with the Administrative Measures for Internet Domain Names. Pursuant to such rules, the registration of domain names adopts the “first to file” principle and the registrant shall complete the registration via the domain name registration service institutions. In the event of a domain name dispute, the disputed parties may lodge a complaint to the designated domain name dispute resolution institution to trigger the domain name dispute resolution procedure in accordance with the CNNIC Measures on Resolution of the Top-Level Domains Disputes, file a suit to the People’s Court or initiate an arbitration procedure.

 

Law and Regulation Relating to Foreign Currency Exchange

 

The principal regulations governing foreign currency exchange in the PRC are the Foreign Exchange Administrative Regulations (the “SAFE Regulations”) which was promulgated by the State Council and last amended on August 5, 2008. Under the SAFE Regulations, the RMB is generally freely convertible for current account items, including the distribution of dividends, trade and service related foreign exchange transactions, but not for capital account items, such as direct investment, loan, repatriation of investment and investment in securities outside the PRC, unless the prior approval of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange is obtained.

 

U.S. Laws and Regulations

 

Battery Safety and Testing

 

Our battery packs of electric industrial heavy equipment will be subject to various U.S. regulations that govern transport of “dangerous goods,” defined to include lithium batteries, which may present a risk in transportation. We expect to use lithium battery packs in our electric industrial heavy equipment. The use, storage and disposal of our battery packs are regulated under existing laws and are the subject of ongoing regulatory changes that may add additional requirements in the future.

 

Product Liability Law

 

U.S. state law generally imposes liability on all manufacturers and retailers (and parties in the supply chain) for injuries that result from unsafe, defective and dangerous products sold to consumers. Product liability claims in the United States are typically based on three theories of law: (1) strict liability, (2) negligence and (3) breach of warranty. In addition, as noted above, U.S. laws and regulations can also obligate manufacturers and retailers (and parties in the supply chain) to remedy product defects, which can include safety recall campaigns.

  

Parties involved in manufacturing, distributing or selling a product may be subject to liability for harm caused by a defect in that product. There are three types of product defects, namely, design defects, manufacturing defects and defects in marketing. In a negligence claim, a defendant may be held liable for personal injury or property damage caused by the failure to use due care. Strict liability claims, however, do not depend on the degree of carefulness by the defendant. A defendant is liable when it is shown that an injury (personal or to property) occurred as the result of a product’s defect. Breach of warranty is also a form of strict liability in the sense that a showing of fault is not required. The plaintiff need only establish the warranty was breached, regardless of how that came about. Companies that manufacture, distribute or sell a product in a particular state may be subject to the jurisdiction of such state’s product liability laws, whether the company’s jurisdiction of incorporation or principal place of business is in that state, in another U.S. state or in a non-U.S. jurisdiction.

 

Product liability legal actions and recall campaigns in the United States (“Product Liability Matters”) could involve personal injury and property damage and could involve claims for substantial monetary damages. The results of any future litigation and claims involving product liability in the United States are inherently unpredictable.

 

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Employment and Labor Law

 

Private businesses operating in the United States are subject to employment laws of the federal governments, state government, and, to a lesser extent, local counties or municipalities. These laws govern many aspects of the workplace as set forth herein and failure to comply can result in fines and penalties from relevant oversight agencies and liability to employees, which can include a multiple of actual damages, counsel fees, and punitive damages for certain violations.

 

Businesses that operate in New Jersey must comply with governing federal laws and New Jersey State laws (together, “US-NJ Employment Laws”). The default rule in New Jersey is that, in the absence of a labor agreement or contract for employment for a specified term, employment is terminable at will. Employers have a right to discharge an employee at any time, for any reason, or for no reason, provided the termination is not for a reason prohibited by law.

 

Broadly, our obligation to comply with applicable US-NJ Employment Laws, includes laws and rules relating to:

 

  (i) Wage and hour standards, such as paying required overtime for employees who do not meet exemption requirements and work in excess of 40 hours in a week, paying minimum wage, and paying wages when due;

 

  (ii) Providing leave and leave benefits to eligible employees, including requirements that unpaid family leave and unpaid leave for reasons including domestic violence or sexual assault shall be provided by covered employers;

 

  (iii) Non-discrimination and anti-retaliation;

 

  (iv) Providing reasonable accommodations to and engaging in the interactive process with employees with disabilities, religious needs, or other protected characteristics;

  

  (v) Ensuring employees are eligible to be employed in the United States; and

 

  (vi) Occupational safety.

 

Failure to comply with the US-NJ Employment Laws may, in some instances, expose us to civil liability to employees or former employees for compensatory damages, statutory damages, as well as punitive damages and counsel fees. We could also be subject to fines, penalties, and assessments from various regulatory authorities.

 

ITEM 1A.  RISK FACTORS

 

The following is a summary of certain risks that should be carefully considered along with the other information contained or incorporated by reference in this Report and the documents incorporated by reference, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act. If any of the following events actually occurs, our business, operating results, prospects, or financial condition could be materially and adversely affected. The risks described below are not the only ones that we face. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also significantly impair our business operations and could result in a complete loss of your investment.

 

Summary of Risk Factors

 

An investment in our ordinary shares is subject to a number of risks, including risks related to our business and industry, risks related to our corporate structure, risks related to doing business in China and risks related to our ordinary shares. You should carefully consider all of the information in this Report before making an investment in the ordinary shares. The following list summarizes some, but not all, of these risks. Please read the information in this section for a more thorough description of these and other risks.

 

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

 

For more detailed discussions of the following risks, see “Risk Factors—Risks Related to our Business and Industry” on pages 21 through 26.

 

  Our subsidiaries’ business operations are cash intensive, and our subsidiaries’ business could be adversely affected if we fail to maintain sufficient levels of liquidity and working capital;

 

  We grant relatively long payment terms for accounts receivable which can adversely affect our cash flow;

 

  Our subsidiaries face short lead-times for delivery of products to customers. Failure to meet delivery deadlines could result in the loss of customers and damage to our reputation and goodwill;

 

  Our subsidiaries face intense competition, and if we are unable to compete effectively, we may not be able to maintain profitability;

 

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  Our revenues are highly dependent on a limited number of customers and the loss of any one of our subsidiaries’ major customers could materially and adversely affect our growth and revenues;

 

  As our subsidiaries expand their operations, they may need to establish a more diverse supplier network for raw materials. The failure to secure a more diverse supplier network could have an adverse effect on our financial condition;

 

  To remain competitive, our subsidiaries are introducing new lines of business, including the production and sale of electric industrial heavy equipment. If these efforts are not successful, our results of operations may be materially and adversely affected;

 

  New lines of business, including the production and sale of electric industrial heavy equipment, may subject us and our subsidiaries to additional risks;

 

  Volatile steel prices can cause significant fluctuations in our operating results. Our revenues and operating income could decrease if steel prices increase or if our subsidiaries are unable to pass price increases on to their customers; and

 

  We are subject to various risks and uncertainties that may affect our subsidiaries’ ability to procure raw materials.

 

Risks Related to Doing Business in China

 

For more detailed discussions of the following risks, see “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China” on pages 26 through 34.

 

  Changes in China’s economic, political or social conditions or government policies could have a material adverse effect on our business and operations;

 

  Uncertainties arising from the legal system in China, including uncertainties regarding the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws and the possibility that regulations and rules can change quickly with little advance notice, could hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer our securities, result in a material adverse change to our business operations, and damage our reputation, which could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations and cause our securities to significantly decline in value or become worthless. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—The PRC government exerts substantial influence over the manner in which we must conduct our business activities. If the Chinese government significantly regulates the business operations of our PRC subsidiaries in the future and our PRC subsidiaries are not able to substantially comply with such regulations, our business operations may be materially adversely affected and the value of our ordinary shares may significantly decrease” and “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system could adversely affect us and our PRC subsidiaries”;

 

  The Chinese government may intervene or influence our operations at any time, or may exert more control over offerings conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in China-based issuers. Any actions by the Chinese government to exert more oversight and control over offerings that are conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in China-based issuers could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors and cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or become worthless. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—The PRC government exerts substantial influence over the manner in which we must conduct our business activities. If the Chinese government significantly regulates the business operations of our PRC subsidiaries in the future and our PRC subsidiaries are not able to substantially comply with such regulations, our business operations may be materially adversely affected and the value of our ordinary shares may significantly decrease”;
     
  Our future offerings will need to be filed with the CSRC, along with compliance with any other applicable PRC rules, policies and regulations, in connection with any future offering of our securities. Any failure to filing, or delay in filing, or failure to complying with any other applicable PRC requirements for an offering, may subject us to sanctions imposed by the relevant PRC regulatory authority. In addition, if applicable laws, regulations, or interpretations change such that we are required to obtain approval in the future and we fail to obtain such approvals, we may be subject to an investigation by competent regulators, fines or penalties, or an order prohibiting us from conducting an offering, and these risks could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of our ordinary shares, significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors, or cause such securities to significantly decline in value or become worthless. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—We are required under PRC laws to submit filings to CSRC for our future offerings. However, we believe that we are not currently required to obtain the approval and/or comply with other requirements of the CSRC, the CAC, or other PRC governmental authorities under PRC rules, regulations or policies in connection with our continued listing on Nasdaq. In the event that any such approval is required or that there are other requirements we are obligated to comply with, we cannot predict whether or how soon we will be able to obtain such approvals and/or comply with such requirements.” and “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—We may be liable for improper use or appropriation of personal information provided by our customers and any failure to comply with PRC laws and regulations over data security could result in materially adverse impact on our business, results of operations, and our continued listing on Nasdaq”;

  

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  Our subsidiaries may be liable for improper use or appropriation of personal information provided by their customers and any failure to comply with PRC laws and regulations over data security could result in materially adverse impact on our business, results of operations, and our continued listing on Nasdaq;

 

  You may have difficulty enforcing judgments against us;

 

  Under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law, we may be classified as a “Resident Enterprise” of China. Such classification will likely result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our non-PRC shareholders;

 

  PRC regulation of loans to, and direct investments in, PRC entities by offshore holding companies may delay or prevent us from using proceeds from our future financing activities to make loans or additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries;

 

  We may rely on dividends paid by our subsidiaries for our cash needs, and any limitation on the ability of our subsidiaries to make payments to us could have a material adverse effect on our ability to conduct business;

 

  Governmental control of currency conversion may limit our ability to utilize our revenues effectively and affect the value of your investment;
     
  U.S. regulatory bodies may be limited in their ability to conduct investigations or inspections of our operations in China; and

  

  Our securities may be delisted and prohibited from being traded under the HFCA Act if the PCAOB is unable to inspect our auditor in the future. Any future delisting and cessation of trading of our securities, or the threat of their being delisted and prohibited from being traded, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment. Additionally, any inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of our auditor in the future would deprive our investors of the benefits of such inspections. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—A recent joint statement by the SEC and the PCAOB, proposed rule changes submitted by Nasdaq, and the HFCA Act all call for additional and more stringent criteria to be applied to emerging market companies upon assessing the qualification of their auditors, especially the non-U.S. auditors who are not inspected by the PCAOB.”

 

Risks Related to Our Ordinary Shares

 

For more detailed discussions of the following risks, see “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Ordinary Shares” on pages 34 through 35.

 

  Future sales of our ordinary shares, whether by us or our shareholders, could cause the price of our ordinary shares to decline;

 

  Because we do not expect to pay dividends in the foreseeable future, you must rely on the price appreciation of our ordinary shares for return on your investment; and

 

  Techniques employed by short sellers may drive down the market price of our ordinary shares.

 

Risks Related to our Business and Industry

 

Our subsidiaries’ business operations are cash intensive, and our subsidiaries’ business could be adversely affected if we fail to maintain sufficient levels of liquidity and working capital.

 

As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately $22.98 million of cash and cash equivalents. Historically, we have spent a significant amount of cash on our operational activities, principally to procure raw materials for our subsidiaries’ products. Our short-term loans are from Chinese banks and are generally secured by a portion of our fixed assets, land use rights and/or guarantees by related parties. Certain of these loans are secured against a portion of the shares of our PRC subsidiaries. The term of a majority of such loans is one year. Historically, we rolled over such loans on an annual basis. However, we may not have sufficient funds available to pay all of our borrowings upon maturity in the future. Failure to roll over our short-term borrowings at maturity or to service our debt could result in a transfer of the ownership of a portion of the shares of our PRC subsidiaries to secured lenders, the imposition of penalties, including increases in interest rates, legal actions against us by our creditors, and even insolvency.

 

Although we have been able to maintain adequate working capital primarily through cash from operations and short-term and long-term borrowings, any failure by our customers to settle outstanding accounts receivable, or our inability to borrow sufficient capital from local banks in the future could materially and adversely affect our cash flow, financial condition and results of operations.

 

We grant relatively long payment terms for accounts receivable which can adversely affect our cash flow.

 

As is customary in China, for competitive reasons, we grant relatively long payment terms to most of our subsidiaries’ customers. The allowances we establish for our receivables may not be adequate. We are subject to the risk that we may be unable to collect accounts receivable in a timely manner. If the accounts receivable cannot be collected in time, or at all, a significant amount of expected credit losses will occur, and our business, financial condition and results of operation will likely be materially and adversely affected.

 

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Our subsidiaries face short lead-times for delivery of products to customers. Failure to meet delivery deadlines could result in the loss of customers and damage to our reputation and goodwill.

 

Most of our subsidiaries’ customers are large manufacturers, who generally place large orders for our subsidiaries’ products and require prompt delivery. Our subsidiaries’ product sale agreements typically contain short lead-times for the delivery of products and tight production and manufacturer supply schedules that can reduce our profit margins on the products procured from our subsidiaries’ suppliers. Our subsidiaries’ suppliers may lack sufficient capacity at any given time to meet all of the demands from our subsidiaries’ customers if orders exceed their production capacity. Our subsidiaries strive for rapid response to customer demands, which can lead to reduced purchasing efficiency, increased procurement costs and low profit margins. If our subsidiaries are unable to meet the customer demands, they may lose customers. Moreover, failure to meet customer demands may damage our reputation and goodwill.

 

Our subsidiaries face intense competition, and, if our subsidiaries are unable to compete effectively, we may not be able to maintain profitability.

 

Our subsidiaries compete with many other companies located in the PRC and internationally that manufacture similar products. Many of our subsidiaries’ competitors are larger companies with greater financial resources. Intense competition in a challenging economic environment in the PRC has, in the past, put pressure on our margins and may adversely affect our future financial performance. Moreover, intense competition may result in potential or actual litigation between our subsidiaries and their competitors relating to such activities as competitive sales practices, relationships with key suppliers and customers or other matters.

 

It is likely that our subsidiaries’ competitors will seek to develop similar competing products in the near future. Some of our subsidiaries’ competitors may have more resources than our subsidiaries do, operate in greater scale, be more capitalized than our subsidiaries are, have access to cheaper raw materials than our subsidiaries do, or offer products at a more competitive price. There can be no assurance that our initial competitive advantage will be retained and that one or more competitors will not develop products that are equal or superior in quality and are better priced than our subsidiaries’ products. If our subsidiaries are unable to compete effectively, our results of operations and financial position may be materially and adversely affected.

 

Our revenues are highly dependent on a limited number of customers and the loss of any one of our subsidiaries’ major customers could materially and adversely affect our growth and revenues.

 

During the fiscal years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, our subsidiaries’ five largest customers contributed 45.06% and 50.85% of our revenues, respectively. For the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, Greenland’s single largest customer, Hangcha Group, accounted for 14.98% and 17.14%, respectively, of Greenland’s total revenue, and Greenland’s second largest customer, Longgong Forklift Truck, accounted for 11.75% and 14.14%, respectively, of Greenland’s total revenue. As a result of our subsidiaries’ reliance on a limited number of customers, our subsidiaries may face pricing and other competitive pressures, which may have a material adverse effect on our profits and our revenues. The volume of products sold for specific customers varies from year to year, especially since our subsidiaries are not the exclusive provider for any customers. In addition, there are a number of factors that could cause the loss of a customer or a substantial reduction in the products that our subsidiaries provide to any customer that may not be predictable. For example, our subsidiaries’ customers may decide to reduce spending on our subsidiaries’ products or a customer may no longer need our subsidiaries’ products following the completion of a project. The loss of any one of our subsidiaries’ major customers, a decrease in the volume of sales to our subsidiaries’ customers or a decrease in the price at which our subsidiaries sell their products to customers could materially adversely affected our profits and revenues.

 

In addition, this customer concentration may subject our subsidiaries to perceived or actual leverage that our subsidiaries’ customers may have in negotiations, given their relative size and importance to our subsidiaries. If our subsidiaries’ customers seek to negotiate their agreements on terms less favorable to our subsidiaries and our subsidiaries accept such terms, such unfavorable terms may have a material adverse effect on our subsidiaries’ business and our financial condition and results of operations. Accordingly, unless and until our subsidiaries diversify and expand their customer base, our future success will significantly depend upon the timing and volume of business from our subsidiaries’ largest customers and the financial and operational success of these customers.

 

As our subsidiaries expand their operations, they may need to establish a more diverse supplier network for raw materials. The failure to secure a more diverse supplier network could have an adverse effect on our financial condition.

 

In the event that our subsidiaries need to diversify their supplier network, our subsidiaries may not be able to procure a sufficient supply of raw materials at a competitive price, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. Furthermore, despite our subsidiaries’ efforts to control their supply of raw materials and maintain good relationships with their existing suppliers, our subsidiaries could lose one or more of their existing suppliers at any time. The loss of one or more key suppliers could increase our subsidiaries’ reliance on higher cost or lower quality supplies, which could negative affect our profitability. Any interruptions to, or decline in, the amount or quality of our subsidiaries’ raw materials supply could materially disrupt our subsidiaries’ production and adversely affect our subsidiaries’ business and our financial condition and financial prospects.

 

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To remain competitive, our subsidiaries have introduced new lines of business, including the production and sale of electric industrial heavy equipment. If these efforts are not successful, our results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

 

Prior to December 2020, through Zhongchai Holding and its PRC subsidiaries, our products mainly included transmission systems and integrated powertrains for material handling machineries, particularly for electric forklift trucks. In December 2020, through HEVI, we launched a new division to focus on the production and sale of electric industrial heavy equipment—a division that Greenland intends to develop to diversify its product offerings. HEVI’s electric industrial heavy equipment products currently include GEF-series electric forklifts, a series of lithium powered forklifts with three models ranging in size from 1.8 tons to 3.5 tons, GEL-1800, a 1.8 ton rated load lithium powered electric wheeled front loader, GEX-8000, an all-electric 8.0 ton rated load lithium powered wheeled excavator, and GEL-5000, an all-electric 5.0 ton rated load lithium wheeled front loader. HEVI also introduced mobile DC battery chargers to support a growing market of EV applications requiring DC charging capabilities in the North America market. These products are available for purchase in the U.S. market. In August 2022, HEVI launched a 54,000 square foot industrial electric vehicle assembly site in Baltimore, Maryland to support local services, assembly and distribution of its electric industrial heavy equipment product line.

 

There are risks in connection with this new line of business. HEVI may experience difficulties in the development and launch of electric industrial heavy equipment, and HEVI’s products may not be well-accepted by the market. As we have limited experience in the electric industrial heavy equipment business, our efforts in developing such business may not succeed and we may not be able to generate sufficient revenue to cover our investment and become profitable. During such process, our results of operations and financial conditions may not be improved in a timely manner, or at all. We cannot assure you that we will successfully transition our business focus and it is possible that we remain in such transition period for an extended period of time. During such period, our revenue may be very limited and we may continue to experience material and adverse effects to our results of operations, financial condition and business prospects.

 

New lines of business, including the production and sale of electric industrial heavy equipment, may subject us and our subsidiaries to additional risks.

 

From time to time, we may implement new lines of business or offer new products within our subsidiaries’ existing lines of business. Currently, we plan to offer additional models of electric industrial heavy equipment through HEVI. As such, we face significant challenges, uncertainties and risks, including, among others, with respect to our subsidiaries’ ability to:

 

  build a well-recognized and respected brand;

 

  establish and expand our customer base;

 

  improve and maintain our operational efficiency for new lines of business;

 

  maintain a reliable, secure, high-performance and scalable technology infrastructure for our new lines of business;

 

  anticipate and adapt to changing market conditions, including technological development and changes in competitive landscape;

 

  navigate an evolving and complex regulatory environment, such as licensing and compliance requirements; and

 

  manage the resources and attention of management between our current core business and new lines of business.

 

Moreover, there can be no assurance that the introduction and development of new lines of business or new products and services would not encounter significant difficulties or delay or would achieve the profitability as we expect. Failure to successfully manage these risks in the development and implementation of new lines of business or new products or services could have a material adverse effect on our subsidiaries’ business and our results of operations and prospects. For example, HEVI may experience difficulties in developing and launching additional models of electric industrial heavy equipment, or may not be able to develop them at reasonable costs. Due to HEVI’s limited experience with electric industrial heavy equipment, HEVI also face challenges and uncertainties relating to the possibility of success of this new business.

 

As our subsidiaries enter into new business sectors, our subsidiaries are also subject to competition from such industries. There can be no assurance that our subsidiaries will be able to compete effectively with respect to their new businesses. If our subsidiaries fail to establish their strengths or maintain their competitiveness in those industries, our business prospects, results of operations and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected.

 

Volatile steel prices can cause significant fluctuations in our operating results. Our revenues and operating income could decrease if steel prices increase or if our subsidiaries are unable to pass price increases on to their customers.

 

Our subsidiaries’ principal raw materials are processed metal parts and components which are made of carburizing steel. The steel industry as a whole is cyclical and, at times, pricing and availability of steel can be volatile due to numerous factors beyond our subsidiaries’ control, including general domestic and international economic conditions, labor costs, sales levels, competition, levels of inventory, consolidation of steel producers, higher raw material costs for steel producers, import duties and tariffs and currency exchange rates. This volatility can significantly affect the availability and cost of raw materials.

 

Our subsidiaries’ suppliers, like many other processed metal parts and components manufacturers, maintain substantial inventories of steel to accommodate the short lead times and just-in-time delivery requirements of customers. Accordingly, our subsidiaries’ suppliers purchase steel in an effort to maintain their inventory at levels that they believe to be appropriate to satisfy the anticipated needs of customers based upon historic buying practices, supply agreements with customers and market conditions. When steel prices increase, competitive conditions will influence how much of the price increase suppliers would pass on to our subsidiaries and how much our subsidiaries can pass on to their customers. To the extent our subsidiaries are unable to pass on future price increases in raw materials to their customers, the revenues and profitability of our business could be adversely affected.

 

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We are subject to various risks and uncertainties that might affect our subsidiaries’ ability to procure raw materials.

 

Our performance depends upon our subsidiaries’ ability to procure low cost, high quality raw materials on a timely basis from their suppliers. Our subsidiaries’ suppliers are subject to certain risks, including the availability of raw materials, labor disputes, inclement weather, natural disasters, and general economic and political conditions, which might limit the ability of our subsidiaries’ suppliers to provide low cost, high quality merchandise on a timely basis. Furthermore, for these or other reasons, one or more of our subsidiaries’ suppliers might not adhere to our subsidiaries’ quality control standards, and our subsidiaries might not identify the deficiency. Any failure by our subsidiaries’ suppliers to supply quality materials at a reasonable cost on a timely basis could reduce our net sales or profits, damage our reputation and have an adverse effect on our financial condition.

  

Our subsidiaries may lose their competitive advantage, and their operations may suffer, if they fail to prevent the loss or misappropriation of, or disputes over, their intellectual property.

 

Our subsidiaries rely on a combination of patents, trademarks, trade secrets and confidentiality agreements to protect their intellectual property rights. While our subsidiaries are not currently aware of any infringement on their intellectual property rights, our subsidiaries’ ability to compete successfully and to achieve future revenue growth will depend, in significant part, on their ability to protect their proprietary technology. Despite many laws and regulations promulgated, as well as other efforts made, by China over the past several years in an attempt to protect intellectual property rights, intellectual property rights are not as certain in China as they would be in many Western countries, including the United States. Furthermore, enforcement of such laws and regulations in China has not been fully developed. Neither the administrative agencies nor the court systems in China are as equipped as their counterparts in developed countries to deal with violations or handle the nuances and complexities between compliant technological innovation and non-compliant infringement.

 

Our subsidiaries’ transmission technology is protected through a combination of patents, trade secrets, confidentiality agreements and other methods. However, our subsidiaries’ competitors may independently develop similar proprietary methodologies or duplicate our products, or develop alternatives, which could have a material adverse effect on our subsidiaries’ business and our results of operations and financial condition. The misappropriation or duplication of our subsidiaries’ intellectual property could disrupt their ongoing business, distract our management and employees, reduce our revenues and increase our expenses. Our subsidiaries may need to litigate to enforce their intellectual property rights. Any such litigation could be time consuming and costly and the outcome of any such litigation cannot be guaranteed.

 

Our PRC subsidiaries have limited insurance coverage for their operations in China and may incur losses resulting from product liability claims, business interruption or natural disasters.

 

HEVI, our subsidiary in the U.S., maintains commercial general liability insurance for its business operations. However, our PRC subsidiaries have limited insurance coverage for their operations in China, and our PRC subsidiaries are therefore exposed to risks associated with product liability claims against our PRC subsidiaries or otherwise against their operations in the PRC in the event that the use of our PRC subsidiaries’ products results in property damage or personal injury. Since our subsidiaries’ transmission products are ultimately incorporated into forklifts, it is possible that users of forklifts or people installing these products could be injured or killed, whether as a result of defects, improper installation or other causes. We are unable to predict whether product liability claims will be brought against our PRC subsidiaries in the future or to predict the impact of any resulting adverse publicity on our PRC subsidiaries’ business. The successful assertion of product liability claims against our PRC subsidiaries could result in potentially significant monetary damages and require us to make significant payments. Our subsidiaries do not carry product liability insurance and may not have adequate resources to satisfy a judgment in the event of a successful claim against us. In addition, our subsidiaries do not currently, and may not in the future, maintain business interruption insurance coverage. As such, our subsidiaries may suffer losses that result from interruptions in their operations as a result of inability to operate or failures of equipment and infrastructure at our subsidiaries’ facilities. Our subsidiaries also do not currently maintain catastrophe insurance. As such, any natural disaster or man-made disaster could result in substantial losses and diversion of our subsidiaries’ resources to address the effects of such an occurrence, which could materially and adversely affect our subsidiaries’ business and our financial condition and results of operations.

 

Failure to make adequate contributions to various employee benefit plans as required by PRC regulations may subject us to penalties.

 

Our PRC subsidiaries are required under PRC laws to participate in various government sponsored employee benefit plans, including social security insurance, housing funds and other welfare-oriented payments, and contribute to the plans in amounts equal to certain percentages of salaries, including bonuses and allowances, of their employees up to a maximum amount specified by the local government from time to time at locations where our PRC subsidiaries operate their businesses. Our PRC subsidiaries have not made adequate employee benefit payments to the social security insurance and the housing fund. As a result, they may be required to make up the contributions for these plans within a stipulated period of time. In addition, our PRC subsidiaries may be required to pay late fees equal to 0.05% of the shortage of the contributions to the social security fund for each day our PRC subsidiaries fail to make up the contributions and may be imposed fines up to three times of such shortage if our PRC subsidiaries fail to make up the difference within the time frame prescribed by relevant government authorities. The maximum amount of such penalties that we anticipate could be imposed on our PRC subsidiaries with respect such employee benefits payments is approximately US$200,000. If our PRC subsidiaries are subject to late fees or fines in relation to the underpaid employee benefits, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected. As of the date of this Report, our PRC subsidiaries have not been ordered to pay outstanding contributions or related penalties.

 

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If labor costs in the PRC increase substantially, our PRC subsidiaries’ business and our costs of operations may be adversely affected.

 

In recent years, the Chinese economy has experienced inflation and labor cost increases. Average wages are projected to continue to increase. Further, under PRC law an employer is required to pay various statutory employee benefits, including pensions, housing funds, medical insurance, work-related injury insurance, unemployment insurance and maternity insurance to designated government agencies for the benefit of its employees. The relevant government agencies may examine whether an employer has made adequate payments to the statutory employee benefits, and those employers who fail to make adequate payments may be subject to late payment fees, fines and/or other penalties. We expect that our labor costs, including wages and employee benefits, will continue to increase based on the past trends. If we are unable to control our labor costs or pass such increased labor costs on to our subsidiaries’ customers, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

 

We recorded a full provision for expected credit losses for a substantial balance due from a related party.

 

As of December 31, 2023, Cenntro Holding Limited owed us $34.46 million. We do not expect the amount of $34.46 million due from Cenntro Holding Limited will be repaid. As a result, we recorded a full provision for expected credit loss for the year ended December 31, 2023.

 

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has continued to spread across the world and has created unique global and industry-wide challenges. COVID-19 has resulted in quarantines, travel restrictions, and the temporary closure of offices and facilities in China and many other countries. New COVID-19 variants have also emerged, potentially extending the period during which COVID-19 will negatively impact the global economy.

 

Since 2021, a few waves of COVID-19 infections emerged in various regions of China, and in response, the Chinese government implemented certain anti-COVID measures and protocols. Chinese industries have gradually resumed businesses as the Chinese government lifted its COVID-19 protocols and measures since December 2022. The COVID-19 pandemic had a limited impact on our financial condition and results of operations in the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023 and 2022. For the fiscal years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, we experienced decreased and decreased raw material costs, respectively.

 

However, the potential downturn brought by, and the duration of, the COVID-19 pandemic may be difficult to assess or predict, and any associated negative impact on us will depend on many factors beyond our control. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic impacts our future results remains uncertain, and we are closely monitoring its impact on us. Our subsidiaries’ business and our results of operations, financial conditions and prospects could be adversely affected directly, as well as indirectly, to the extent that the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic harms the Chinese and global economy in general.

 

We may not be able to effectively protect our intellectual property from unauthorized use by others.

 

Through its subsidiaries, we hold patents, trademarks and other intellectual properties that are critical to our business in the PRC. Any of our intellectual property rights could be challenged, invalidated, circumvented or misappropriated, or such intellectual property may not be sufficient to provide us with competitive advantages. We cannot assure you that (i)  all of the intellectual property rights we owned will be adequately protected, or (ii) our intellectual property rights will not be challenged by third parties or found by a judicial authority to be invalid or unenforceable. Moreover, there can be no assurance that we will obtain such trademarks and any other trademarks that are crucial to our business in the future. Thus, third parties may also take the position that we are infringing their rights, and we may not be successful in defending these claims. Additionally, we may not be able to enforce and defend its proprietary rights or prevent infringement or misappropriation, without incurring substantial expenses to us and a significant diversion of management time and attention from our business strategy.

 

To protect our parents, trademarks and other proprietary rights, we reply on and expect to continue to rely on a combination of physical and electronic security measures and trademark, patent and trade secret protection laws. If the measures we have taken to protect our proprietary rights are inadequate to prevent the use or misappropriation by third parties or such rights are diminished due to successful challenges, the value of our brand and other intangible assets may be diminished and our ability to attract and retain customers may be adversely affected.

 

Competition for our and our subsidiaries’ employees is intense, and we and our subsidiaries may not be able to attract and retain the highly skilled employees needed to support our subsidiaries’ business.

 

As we continue to experience growth, our future success depends on our and our subsidiaries’ ability to attract, develop, motivate and retain highly qualified and skilled employees, including engineers, financial personnel and marketing professionals. Competition for highly skilled engineering, sales, technical and financial personnel is extremely intense. We and our subsidiaries may not be able to hire and retain these personnel at compensation levels consistent with our existing compensation and salary structure. Many of the companies with which we and our subsidiaries compete for experienced employees have greater resources than we and our subsidiaries have and may be able to offer more attractive terms of employment.

 

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In addition, we and our subsidiaries invest significant time and expense in training our employees, which increases their value to competitors who may seek to recruit them. If we and our subsidiaries fail to retain our employees, we could incur significant expenses in hiring and training their replacements, and the quality of our products could decrease, resulting in a material adverse effect on our subsidiaries’ business.

  

Our business depends on the continued efforts of our senior management. If one or more of our key executives were unable or unwilling to continue in their present positions, our business may be severely disrupted.

 

Our business operations depend on the continuing services of our senior management. While we have provided different incentives to our management, we cannot assure you that we can continue to retain their services. If one or more of our key executives were unable or unwilling to continue in their present positions, we may not be able to replace them easily or at all, our future growth may be constrained, business may be severely disrupted and our financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected, and we may incur additional expenses to recruit, train and retain qualified personnel. In addition, although we have entered into a non-competition agreement with Mr. Peter Zuguang Wang, the chairman of our board of directors, there is no assurance that Mr. Wang will not join our competitors or form a competing business. If any dispute arises between us and Mr. Wang, we may incur substantial costs and expenses in order to enforce the non-competition agreement in China, and we may be unable to enforce it at all.

 

We do not maintain “key person” insurance, and as a result, we may incur losses if any of our directors, executive officers, senior manager or other key employees chooses to terminate his or her services with us.

 

We do not maintain “key person” insurance for our directors, executive officers, senior management or other key employees. If any of our key employees terminate his or her services or otherwise becomes unable to provide continuous services to us, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected and we may incur additional expenses to recruit, train and retain qualified personnel. If any of our executive officers or key employees joins a competitor or forms a competing company, we may lose customers, operational know-how and key professionals and staff members.

 

We are currently operating in a period of economic uncertainty and capital markets disruption, which has been significantly impacted by geopolitical instability due to the ongoing invasion of Ukraine by Russia and conflicts between Israel and Hamas.

 

U.S. and global markets are experiencing volatility and disruption as a result of the outbreak or escalation of wards including Russia’s launch of a full-scale military invasion of Ukraine, conflicts between Israel and Hamas. Although the length and impact of these ongoing conflicts are highly unpredictable, these conflicts have led to market disruptions, including significant volatility in commodity prices, credit, and capital markets. In addition, as a result of the ongoing conflicts around the world, we may experience other risks, difficulties and challenges in the way we conduct our business and operations generally. For example, the conflict could adversely affect supply chains and impact our ability to control raw material costs. A protracted conflict between Ukraine and Russia or between Israel and Hamas, any escalation of either conflict, and the wider global economy and market conditions could, in turn, have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our ordinary shares to decline.

 

High inflation rates may adversely affect us by increasing costs beyond what we can recover through price increases and limit our ability to enter into future traditional debt financing.

 

Inflation can adversely affect us by increasing costs of critical materials, equipment, labor, and other services. In addition, inflation is often accompanied by higher interest rates. Continued inflationary pressures could impact our profitability. Inflation may also affect our ability to enter into future traditional debt financing, as high inflation may result in an increase in cost.

 

Risks Related to Doing Business in China

 

Changes in China’s economic, political or social conditions or government policies could have a material adverse effect on our business and operations.

 

A substantial majority of our assets and operations are located in China. Accordingly, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may be influenced to a significant degree by political, economic and social conditions in China generally. The PRC economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including with regard to the level of government involvement, level of development, growth rate, control of foreign exchange and allocation of resources. Although the PRC government has implemented measures emphasizing the utilization of market forces for economic reform, the reduction of state ownership of productive assets, and the establishment of improved corporate governance in business enterprises, a substantial portion of productive assets in China is still owned by the government. In addition, the PRC government continues to play a significant role in regulating industry development by imposing industrial policies.

 

The PRC government also exercises significant control over China’s economic growth through allocating resources, controlling payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy, and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies.

  

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While the PRC economy has experienced significant growth over the past decades, growth has been uneven, both geographically and among various sectors of the economy, and the rate of growth has been slowing since 2012. Any adverse changes in economic conditions in China, in the policies of the PRC government or in the laws and regulations in China could have a material adverse effect on the overall economic growth of China. Such developments could adversely affect our business and operating results, lead to reduction in demand for our subsidiaries’ products and adversely affect our subsidiaries’ competitive position. The PRC government has implemented various measures to encourage economic growth and guide the allocation of resources. Some of these measures may benefit the overall PRC economy, but may have a negative effect on us and our subsidiaries. For example, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by government control over capital investments or changes in tax regulations. In addition, in the past the PRC government has implemented certain measures, including interest rate adjustment, to control the pace of economic growth. These measures may cause decreased economic activity in China, which may adversely affect our business and operating results.

 

Uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system could adversely affect us and our PRC subsidiaries.

 

The PRC legal system is a civil law system based on written statutes. Unlike the common law system, prior court decisions under the civil law system may be cited for reference but have limited precedential value. Since these laws and regulations are relatively new and the PRC legal system continues to rapidly evolve, the interpretations of many laws, regulations and rules are not always uniform and the enforcement of these laws, regulations and rules involves uncertainties.

 

In 1979, the PRC government began to promulgate a comprehensive system of laws and regulations governing economic matters in general. The overall effect of legislation over the past four decades has significantly enhanced the protections afforded to various forms of foreign investments in China. However, China has not developed a fully integrated legal system, and recently enacted laws and regulations may not sufficiently cover all aspects of economic activities in China. In particular, the interpretation and enforcement of these laws and regulations involve uncertainties. Since PRC administrative and court authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory provisions and contractual terms, it may be difficult to evaluate the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection we enjoy. These uncertainties may affect our and/or our PRC subsidiaries’ judgment on the relevance of legal requirements and our/our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to enforce our/their contractual rights or tort claims. In addition, the regulatory uncertainties may be exploited through unmerited or frivolous legal actions or threats in attempts to extract payments or benefits from us and our PRC subsidiaries.

 

Furthermore, the PRC legal system is based in part on government policies and internal rules, some of which are not published on a timely basis or at all and may have retroactive effect. As a result, we and/or our PRC subsidiaries may not be aware of our/their violation of any of these policies and rules until sometime after the violation. In addition, any administrative and court proceedings in China may be protracted, resulting in substantial costs and diversion of resources and management attention.

 

In addition, we and our PRC subsidiaries are subject to risks and uncertainties of the interpretations and applications of PRC laws and regulations, including, but not limited to, limitations on foreign ownership in the industry our PRC subsidiaries operate. We and our PRC subsidiaries are also subject to the risks and uncertainties about any future actions of the PRC government. If any future actions of the PRC government result in a material change in our operations, and the value of our ordinary shares may depreciate significantly or become worthless.

 

The PRC government exerts substantial influence over the manner in which our PRC subsidiaries must conduct their business activities. If the Chinese government significantly regulates the business operations of our PRC subsidiaries in the future and our PRC subsidiaries are not able to substantially comply with such regulations, the business operations of our PRC subsidiaries may be materially and adversely affected and the value of our ordinary shares may significantly decrease.

 

The PRC government has exercised, and continues to exercise, substantial control over virtually every sector of the Chinese economy through regulation and state ownership, including steel sector where our PRC subsidiaries have been doing their business. Any government decisions or actions to change the way steel production is regulated, or any decisions the government might make to cut spending, could adversely impact our PRC subsidiaries’ business and our results of operations. In addition, the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to operate in China may be harmed by changes in PRC laws and regulations, including those relating to taxation, environmental conditions, land use rights, property and other matters. The central or local governments of these jurisdictions may impose new, stricter regulations or interpretations of existing regulations that would require additional expenditures and efforts on our part to ensure our compliance with such regulations or interpretations. Accordingly, government actions in the future, including any decision not to continue to support recent economic reforms and to return to a more centrally planned economy or regional or local variations in the implementation of economic policies, could have a significant effect on economic conditions in China or particular regions thereof, and could require us to divest ourselves of any interest we then hold in Chinese properties.

 

We believe that our PRC subsidiaries’ operations in China are in material compliance with all applicable legal and regulatory requirements. However, the central or local governments of the jurisdictions in which our PRC subsidiaries operate may impose new, stricter regulations or interpretations of existing regulations with little advance notice that would require additional expenditures and efforts on their part to ensure our subsidiaries’ compliance with such regulations or interpretations.

 

Our PRC subsidiaries may incur increased costs necessary to comply with existing and newly adopted laws and regulations or penalties for any failure to comply. In the event that our PRC subsidiaries are not able to substantially comply with any existing or newly adopted laws and regulations, our business operations may be materially adversely affected and the value of our ordinary shares may significantly decrease.

 

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Furthermore, the PRC government authorities may strengthen oversight and control over offerings that are conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in China-based issuers like us. Such actions taken by the PRC government authorities may intervene or influence the operations of our PRC subsidiaries at any time, which may be beyond our control. Therefore, any such action may adversely affect the operations of our PRC subsidiaries and substantially limit or hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to you and significantly reduce the value of such securities or cause the value of such securities to be completely worthless.

 

We are required under PRC laws to submit filings to CSRC for our future offerings. However, we believe that we and our PRC subsidiaries are not currently required to obtain the approval and/or comply with other requirements of the CSRC, the CAC, or other PRC governmental authorities under PRC rules, regulations or policies in connection with our continued listing on Nasdaq. In the event that any such approval is required or that there are other requirements we and/or our PRC subsidiaries are obligated to comply with, we cannot predict whether or how soon we and/or our PRC subsidiaries will be able to obtain such approvals and/or comply with such requirements.

 

The Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the M&A Rules, purport to require offshore special purpose vehicles that are controlled by PRC companies or individuals and that have been formed for the purpose of seeking a public listing on an overseas stock exchange through acquisitions of PRC domestic companies or assets to obtain CSRC approval prior to publicly listing their securities on an overseas stock exchange. The interpretation and application of those regulations remain unclear.

 

In addition, the PRC government authorities may strengthen future oversight over offerings that are conducted overseas. For instance, on July 6, 2021, the relevant PRC governmental authorities promulgated the Opinions on Strictly Cracking Down on Illegal Securities Activities, which emphasized the need to strengthen the PRC government’s supervision over overseas listings by PRC companies. Pursuant to the Opinions, effective measures, such as promoting the construction of relevant regulatory systems, are to be taken to deal with the risks of China-based overseas-listed companies, cybersecurity and data privacy protection requirements and similar matters. The Cybersecurity Review Measures (Decree No. 8 of the Cybersecurity Administration of the PRC), or the revised Cybersecurity Review Measures, enacted on December 28, 2021 and came into effect on February 15, 2022, also require online platform operators holding over one million users’ personal information to apply for a cybersecurity review before any public offering on a foreign stock exchange. These statements and regulations are recently issued, and there remain substantial uncertainties about their interpretation and implementation. See also “—Our PRC subsidiaries may be liable for improper use or appropriation of personal information provided by their customers and any failure to comply with PRC laws and regulations over data security could result in materially adverse impact on our business, results of operations, and our continued listing on Nasdaq.”

 

On February 17, 2023, the CSRC published the Regulations of Trial Administrative Measures of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies (the “Trial Measures”) and its accompanying guidelines and instructions, which came into effect on March 31, 2023, and will apply if a domestic enterprise issues shares, depositary receipts, corporate bonds convertible into shares, or other securities of an equity nature outside of the PRC, or lists its securities for trading outside of the PRC. According to such regulations, a domestic enterprise that issues and lists its securities outside of the PRC shall comply with the filing procedures and report the relevant information to the CSRC. A domestic enterprise shall not be listed on an overseas stock exchange if any of the following circumstances exists: (i) where such securities offering and listing is explicitly prohibited by provisions in laws, administrative regulations and relevant state rules; (ii) where the intended securities offering and listing may endanger national security as reviewed and determined by competent authorities under the State Council in accordance with law; (iii) where the domestic company intending to make the securities offering and listing, or its controlling shareholders and the actual controller, have committed crimes such as corruption, bribery, embezzlement, misappropriation of property or undermining the order of the socialist market economy during the latest three years; (iv) where the domestic company intending to make the securities offering and listing is suspected of committing crimes or major violations of laws and regulations, and is under investigation according to law, and no conclusion has yet been made thereof; (v) where there are material ownership disputes over equity held by the domestic company’s controlling shareholder or by other shareholders that are controlled by the controlling shareholder and/or actual controller. The Trial Measures changes the management of licensing to record management, strengthen the supervision in the aftermath, create a more transparent and predictable institutional environment, and support the standardized development of enterprises using the overseas capital market.

 

According to the Notice on Filing Management Arrangements for Overseas Listings of Domestic Enterprises issued and implemented by the CSRC on February 17, 2023, since the date of effectiveness of the Trial Measures, the domestic enterprises falling within the scope of filing that have been listed overseas or met the following circumstances are existing enterprises: Before the effectiveness of the Trial Measures, the application for indirect overseas issuance and listing has been agreed by the overseas regulators or overseas stock exchanges (such as having passed the hearing on the Hong Kong market or registration become effective as agreed on the U.S. market, etc.), and it is not required to perform issuance and listing supervision procedures of the overseas regulators or overseas stock exchanges (such as rehearing on the Hong Kong market, etc.), and the overseas issuance and listing will be completed by September 30, 2023. According to the above regulations, the Company is an existing enterprise, which do not be required to file immediately, and filing should be made as required if they involve refinancing and other filing matters.

 

As of the date of this Report, we believe we and our PRC subsidiaries are not required to obtain any permission from PRC authorities (including the CSRC and the CAC) to operate our PRC subsidiaries’ business as presently conducted or listing on Nasdaq. Therefore, as of the date of this Report, we and our PRC subsidiaries have not applied for any permission or approval from any PRC governmental authority in connection with our offshore listing or offering and, as such, no such permission or approval has been granted or denied. However, if it fails to comply with the Trial Measures during future issuance of securities or listing on other stock exchanges outside of China, we may be subjected sanctions imposed by the PRC regulatory authorities, and our reputation, financial condition, and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

  

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Our PRC subsidiaries may be liable for improper use or appropriation of personal information provided by their customers and any failure to comply with PRC laws and regulations over data security could result in materially adverse impact on our business, results of operations, and our continued listing on Nasdaq.

 

Our PRC subsidiaries’ business involves collecting and retaining certain internal and customer data. Our PRC subsidiaries also maintain information about various aspects of their operations. The integrity and protection of customer and company data is critical to our business. Our subsidiaries’ customers expect that our subsidiaries will adequately protect their personal information. Our PRC subsidiaries are required by applicable laws to keep strictly confidential the personal information that they collect, and to take adequate security measures to safeguard such information.

 

The PRC Criminal Law, as amended by its Amendment 7 (effective on February 28, 2009) and Amendment 9 (effective on November 1, 2015), prohibits institutions, companies and their employees from selling or otherwise illegally disclosing a citizen’s personal information obtained in performing duties or providing services or obtaining such information through theft or other illegal ways. On November 7, 2016, the Standing Committee of the PRC National People’s Congress issued the Cyber Security Law of the PRC, or Cyber Security Law, which became effective on June 1, 2017. Pursuant to the Cyber Security Law, network operators must not, without users’ consent, collect their personal information, and may only collect users’ personal information necessary to provide their services. Providers are also obliged to provide security maintenance for their products and services and shall comply with provisions regarding the protection of personal information as stipulated under the relevant laws and regulations.

  

The Civil Code of the PRC (issued by the PRC National People’s Congress on May 28, 2020 and effective from January 1, 2021) provides the legal basis for privacy and personal information infringement claims under the Chinese civil laws. PRC regulators, including the CAC, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, and the Ministry of Public Security, have been increasingly focused on regulation in data security and data protection.

 

The PRC regulatory requirements regarding cybersecurity are evolving. For instance, various regulatory bodies in China, including the CAC, the Ministry of Public Security and the State Administration for Market Regulation, have enforced data privacy and protection laws and regulations with varying and evolving standards and interpretations. In April 2020, the Chinese government promulgated Cybersecurity Review Measures, which came into effect on June 1, 2020. According to the Cybersecurity Review Measures, operators of critical information infrastructure must pass a cybersecurity review when purchasing network products and services which do or may affect national security.

 

In December 2021, the CAC and other related authorities promulgated the revised Cybersecurity Review Measures, which came into effect on February 15, 2022. The revised Cybersecurity Review Measures propose the following key changes:

 

  online platform operators who are engaged in data processing are also subject to the regulatory scope;

 

  the CSRC is included as one of the regulatory authorities for purposes of jointly establishing the state cybersecurity review working mechanism;

 

  the online platform operators holding more than one million users’ individual information and seeking a listing outside China shall file for cybersecurity review with the Cybersecurity Review Office; and

 

  the risks of core data, material data or large amounts of personal information being stolen, leaked, destroyed, damaged, illegally used or transmitted to overseas parties and the risks of critical information infrastructure, core data, material data or large amounts of personal information being influenced, controlled or used maliciously shall be collectively taken into consideration during the cybersecurity review process.

 

Certain internet platforms in China have reportedly become subject to heightened regulatory scrutiny in relation to cybersecurity matters. As of the date of this Report, we have not been included within the definition of “operator of critical information infrastructure” by a competent authority, nor have we been informed by any PRC governmental authority of any requirement that we file for a cybersecurity review. However, if we are deemed to be a critical information infrastructure operator or an online platform operator that is engaged in data processing and holds personal information of more than one million users, we could be subject to PRC cybersecurity review in the future.

 

As there remains significant uncertainty in the interpretation and enforcement of relevant PRC cybersecurity laws and regulations, we could be subject to cybersecurity review. In addition, we could become subject to enhanced cybersecurity review or investigations launched by PRC regulators in the future. Any failure or delay in the completion of the cybersecurity review procedures or any other non-compliance with the related laws and regulations may result in fines or other penalties, including suspension of business, website closure and revocation of prerequisite licenses, as well as reputational damage or legal proceedings or actions against us and/or our PRC subsidiaries, which may have material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. As of the date of this Report, we and our PRC subsidiaries have not been involved in any investigations on cybersecurity review initiated by the CAC or related governmental regulatory authorities, and we and our PRC subsidiaries have not received any inquiry, notice, warning, or sanction in such respect.

 

On June 10, 2021, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress of China, or the SCNPC, promulgated the PRC Data Security Law, which took effect in September 2021. The PRC Data Security Law imposes data security and privacy obligations on entities and individuals carrying out data activities, and introduces a data classification and hierarchical protection system based on the importance of data in economic and social development, and the degree of harm it will cause to national security, public interests, or legitimate rights and interests of individuals or organizations when such data is tampered with, destroyed, leaked, illegally acquired or used. The PRC Data Security Law also provides for a national security review procedure for data activities that may affect national security and imposes export restrictions on certain data an information.

 

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As of the date of this Report, we do not expect that the current PRC laws on cybersecurity or data security would have a material adverse impact on our business operations. However, as the scope of the PRC Data Security Law is broad and includes the collection, storage, use, processing, transmission, availability and disclosure of data, among others, and uncertainties remain regarding the interpretation and implementation of these laws and regulations, we cannot assure you that we and our PRC subsidiaries will comply with such regulations in all respects and we and/or our PRC subsidiaries may be ordered to rectify or terminate any actions that are deemed illegal by regulatory authorities. Any directly liable person within our Company for violations or alleged violations of the PRC Data Security Law may become subject to fines. We and/or our PRC subsidiaries may also become subject to fines and/or other sanctions that may have material adverse effect on our business, operations and financial condition.

 

A severe or prolonged downturn in the PRC or global economy could materially and adversely affect our business and our financial condition.

 

The global macroeconomic environment is facing challenges. There is considerable uncertainty over the long-term effects of the expansionary monetary and fiscal policies adopted by the central banks and financial authorities of some of the world’s leading economies, including the United States and China. There have been concerns over unrest and terrorist threats in the Middle East, Europe and Africa and over the conflicts involving Ukraine, Syria, Russia and North Korea. There have also been concerns on the relationship among China and other Asian countries, which may result in, or intensify potential conflicts in relation to, territorial disputes, and the trade disputes between China and other countries. It is unclear whether these challenges and uncertainties will be contained or resolved, and what effects they may have on the global political and economic conditions in the long term.

 

Economic conditions in China are sensitive to global economic conditions, changes in domestic economic and political policies and the expected or perceived overall economic growth rate in China. While the economy in China has grown significantly over the past decades, growth has been uneven, both geographically and among various sectors of the economy, and the rate of growth has been slowing in recent years. Although growth of China’s economy remained relatively stable, there is a possibility that China’s economic growth may materially decline in the near future. Any severe or prolonged slowdown in the global or PRC economy may materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

  

You may have difficulty enforcing judgments against us.

 

A significant portion of our assets are located, and a substantial amount of our subsidiaries’ operations are conducted, in the PRC. In addition, some of our directors and officers are nationals or residents of the PRC, including our chief financial officer, Mr. Jing Jin, and independent director, Mr. Ming Zhao, and a substantial majority of their assets are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult to effect service of process within the United States upon these persons. In addition, there is uncertainty as to whether the courts of the PRC would recognize or enforce judgments of U.S. courts because China does not have any treaties or other arrangements that provide for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments with the United States. In addition, according to the PRC Civil Procedures Law, courts in the PRC will not enforce a foreign judgment against us or our directors and officers if they decide that the judgment violates basic principles of PRC law or national sovereignty, security, or the public interest.

 

Under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law, we may be classified as a “Resident Enterprise” of China. Any classification as such will likely result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our non-PRC shareholders.

 

Under the PRC EIT Law, an enterprise established outside of China with “de facto management bodies” within China is considered a “resident enterprise,” meaning that it can be subject to an enterprise income tax, or EIT, rate of 25.0% on its global income. In April 2009, the SAT promulgated a circular, known as Circular 82, and partially amended by Circular 9 promulgated in January 2014, to clarify the certain criteria for the determination of the “de facto management bodies” for foreign enterprises controlled by PRC enterprises or PRC enterprise groups. Under Circular 82, a foreign enterprise is considered a PRC resident enterprise if all of the following apply: (1) the senior management and core management departments in charge of daily operations are located mainly within China; (2) decisions relating to the enterprise’s financial and human resource matters are made or subject to approval by organizations or personnel in China; (3) the enterprise’s primary assets, accounting books and records, company seals, and board and shareholders’ meeting minutes are located or maintained in China; and (4) 50.0% or more of voting board members or senior executives of the enterprise habitually reside in China. Further to Circular 82, the SAT issued a bulletin, known as Bulletin 45, effective in September 2011 and amended on June 1, 2015 and October 1, 2016, to provide more guidance on the implementation of Circular 82 and clarify the reporting and filing obligations of such “Chinese controlled offshore incorporated resident enterprises.” Bulletin 45 provides for, among other matters, procedures for the determination of resident status and administration of post-determination matters. Although Circular 82 and Bulletin 45 explicitly provide that the above standards apply to enterprises that are registered outside China and controlled by PRC enterprises or PRC enterprise groups, Circular 82 may reflect the SAT’s criteria for determining the tax residence of foreign enterprises in general.

 

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If the PRC tax authorities determine that we are a “resident enterprise” for PRC enterprise income tax purposes, a number of unfavorable PRC tax consequences could follow. First, we may be subject to the enterprise income tax at a rate of 25% on our worldwide taxable income as well as PRC enterprise income tax reporting obligations. In our case, this would mean that income such as non-China source income would be subject to PRC enterprise income tax at a rate of 25%. Second, under the PRC EIT Law, dividends paid to us from our PRC subsidiaries would be deemed as “qualified investment income between resident enterprises” and therefore qualify as “tax-exempt income” pursuant to the clause 26 of the PRC EIT Law. Finally, it is possible that future guidance issued with respect to the new “resident enterprise” classification could result in a situation in which the dividends we pay with respect to our ordinary shares, or the gain our non-PRC shareholders may realize from the transfer of our ordinary shares, may be treated as PRC-sourced income and may therefore be subject to a 10% PRC withholding tax. The PRC EIT Law is, however, relatively new and ambiguities exist with respect to the interpretation and identification of PRC-sourced income, and the application and assessment of withholding taxes. If we are required under the PRC EIT Law to withhold PRC income tax on dividends payable to our non-PRC shareholders, should there be a determination in the future to pay dividends, or if non-PRC shareholders are required to pay PRC income tax on gains on the transfer of their ordinary shares, our business could be negatively impacted and the value of your investment may be materially reduced. Further, if we were treated as a “resident enterprise” by PRC tax authorities, we would be subject to taxation in both China and such countries in which we have taxable income, and our PRC tax may not be creditable against such other taxes.

  

PRC regulation of loans to, and direct investments in, PRC entities by offshore holding companies may delay or prevent us from using proceeds from our future financing activities to make loans or additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries.

 

As an offshore holding company with PRC subsidiaries, we may transfer funds to our PRC subsidiaries or finance our PRC entities by means of loans or capital contributions. Any capital contributions or loans that we, as an offshore entity, make to our PRC subsidiaries, are subject to PRC regulations. Any loans to our PRC subsidiaries, which are foreign-invested enterprises, cannot exceed statutory limits based on the difference between the amount of our investments and registered capital in such subsidiaries, and shall be registered with State Administration of Foreign Exchange, or SAFE, or its local counterparts. Furthermore, any capital increase contributions we make to our PRC subsidiaries, which are foreign-invested enterprises, are subject to the requirement of making necessary reports in Foreign Investment Comprehensive Management Information System, and registration with other government authorities in China. We may not be able to obtain these government registrations or approvals on a timely basis, if at all. If we fail to obtain such approvals or make such registration, our ability to make equity contributions or provide loans to our PRC subsidiaries or to fund their operations may be negatively affected, which may adversely affect their liquidity and ability to fund their working capital and expansion projects and meet their obligations and commitments. As a result, our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business may be negatively affected.

 

We may rely on dividends paid by our subsidiaries for our cash needs, and any limitation on the ability of our subsidiaries to make payments to us could have a material adverse effect on our ability to conduct business.

 

As a holding company, we conduct a substantial amount of our business through our subsidiaries in China. We may rely on dividends paid by these PRC subsidiaries for our cash needs, including the funds necessary to pay any dividends and other cash distributions to our shareholders, to service any debt we may incur and to pay our operating expenses. The payment of dividends by entities established in China is subject to limitations. Regulations in China currently permit payment of dividends only out of accumulated profits as determined in accordance with accounting standards and regulations in China. In accordance with the Article 166, 168 of the Company Law of the PRC (Amended in 2018), each of our PRC subsidiaries is required to set aside at least 10% of its after-tax profit based on PRC accounting standards each year to its general reserves or statutory capital reserve fund until the aggregate amount of such reserves reaches 50% of its respective registered capital. A company may discontinue the contribution when the aggregate sum of the statutory surplus reserve is more than 50% of its registered capital. The statutory common reserve fund of a company may only be used to cover the losses of the company, expand the business and production of the company or be converted into additional capital. As a result, our PRC subsidiaries are restricted in their ability to transfer a portion of their net assets to us in the form of dividends. In addition, if any of our PRC subsidiaries incurs debt on its own behalf in the future, the instruments governing the debt may restrict such subsidiary’s ability to pay dividends or make other distributions to us. Any limitations on the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to transfer funds to us could materially and adversely limit our ability to grow, make investments or acquisitions that could be beneficial to our business, pay dividends and otherwise fund and conduct our business.

  

You may be subject to PRC income tax on dividends from us or on any gain realized on the transfer of our ordinary shares.

 

Under the PRC EIT Law, subject to any applicable tax treaty or similar arrangement between the PRC and your jurisdiction of residence that provides for a different income tax arrangement, PRC withholding tax at the rate of 10.0% is normally applicable to dividends from PRC sources payable to investors that are non-PRC resident enterprises, which do not have an establishment or place of business in China, or which have such establishment or place of business if the relevant income is not effectively connected with the establishment or place of business. Any gain realized on the transfer of shares by such investors is subject to 10.0% PRC income tax if such gain is regarded as income derived from sources within China unless a treaty or similar arrangement otherwise provides. Under the Individual Income Tax Law of the PRC and its implementation rules, dividends from sources within China paid to foreign individual investors who are not PRC residents are generally subject to a PRC withholding tax at a rate of 20% and gains from PRC sources realized by such investors on the transfer of shares are generally subject to 20% PRC income tax, in each case, subject to any reduction or exemption set forth in applicable tax treaties and PRC laws.

 

There is a risk that we will be treated by the PRC tax authorities as a PRC tax resident enterprise. In that case, any dividends we pay to our shareholders may be regarded as income derived from sources within China and we may be required to withhold a 10.0% PRC withholding tax for the dividends we pay to our investors who are non-PRC corporate shareholders, or a 20.0% withholding tax for the dividends we pay to our investors who are non-PRC individual shareholders, including the holders of our Shares. In addition, our non-PRC shareholders may be subject to PRC tax on gains realized on the sale or other disposition of our ordinary shares, if such income is treated as sourced from within China. It is unclear whether our non-PRC shareholders would be able to claim the benefits of any tax treaties between their tax residence and China in the event that we are considered as a PRC resident enterprise. If PRC income tax is imposed on gains realized through the transfer of our ordinary shares or on dividends paid to our non-resident investors, should there be a determination in the future to pay dividends, the value of your investment in our ordinary shares may be materially and adversely affected. Furthermore, our shareholders whose jurisdictions of residence have tax treaties or arrangements with China may not qualify for benefits under such tax treaties or arrangements.

  

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We may be unable to complete a business combination transaction efficiently or on favorable terms due to complicated merger and acquisition regulations and certain other PRC regulations.

 

On August 8, 2006, six PRC regulatory authorities, including Ministry of Commerce, the State Assets Supervision and Administration Commission, the SAT, the Administration for Industry and Commerce, the CSRC and SAFE, jointly issued the M&A Rules, which became effective on September 8, 2006 and were amended in June 2009. The M&A Rules, governing the approval process by which a PRC company may participate in an acquisition of assets or equity interests by foreign investors, requires the PRC parties to make a series of applications and supplemental applications to the government agencies, depending on the structure of the transaction. In some instances, the application process may require presentation of economic data concerning a transaction, including appraisals of the target business and evaluations of the acquirer, which are designed to allow the government to assess the transaction. Accordingly, due to the M&A Rules, our ability to engage in business combination transactions has become significantly more complicated, time-consuming and expensive, and we may not be able to negotiate a transaction that is acceptable to our shareholders or sufficiently protective of their interests in a transaction.

  

The M&A Rules allow PRC government agencies to assess the economic terms of a business combination transaction. Parties to a business combination transaction may have to submit to Ministry of Commerce and other relevant government agencies an appraisal report, an evaluation report and the acquisition agreement, all of which form part of the application for approval, depending on the structure of the transaction. The M&A Rules also prohibit a transaction at an acquisition price obviously lower than the appraised value of the business or assets in China and in certain transaction structures, require that consideration must be paid within defined periods, generally not in excess of a year. In addition, the M&A Rules also limit our ability to negotiate various terms of the acquisition, including aspects of the initial consideration, contingent consideration, holdback provisions, indemnification provisions and provisions relating to the assumption and allocation of assets and liabilities. Transaction structures involving trusts, nominees and similar entities are prohibited. Therefore, such regulations may impede our ability to negotiate and complete a business combination transaction on legal and/or financial terms that satisfy our investors and protect our shareholders’ economic interests.

 

Fluctuations in exchange rates could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations and the value of your investment.

 

The conversion of Renminbi into foreign currencies, including U.S. dollars, is based on rates set by the People’s Bank of China. The Renminbi has fluctuated against the U.S. dollar, at times significantly and unpredictably. The value of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar and other currencies may fluctuate and is affected by, among other things, changes in political and economic conditions in China and by China’s foreign exchange policies, among other things. We cannot assure you that Renminbi will not appreciate or depreciate significantly in value against the U.S. dollar in the future. It is difficult to predict how market forces or PRC or U.S. government policy may impact the exchange rate between the Renminbi and the U.S. dollar in the future.

 

Significant fluctuation of the Renminbi may have a material adverse effect on your investment. For example, to the extent that we need to convert U.S. dollars into Renminbi for our operations, appreciation of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar would have an adverse effect on the Renminbi amount we would receive from the conversion. Conversely, if we decide to convert our Renminbi into U.S. dollars for the purpose of making payments for dividends on our ordinary shares or for other business purposes, appreciation of the U.S. dollar against the Renminbi would have a negative effect on the U.S. dollar amount available to us.

 

Very limited hedging options are available in China to reduce our exposure to exchange rate fluctuations. As of the date of this Report, we have not entered into any material hedging transactions in an effort to reduce our exposure to foreign currency exchange risk. While we may decide to enter into hedging transactions in the future, the availability and effectiveness of these hedges may be limited and we may not be able to adequately hedge our exposure or at all. In addition, our currency exchange losses may be magnified by PRC exchange control regulations that restrict our ability to convert Renminbi into foreign currency.

  

Governmental control of currency conversion may limit our ability to utilize our revenues effectively and affect the value of your investment.

 

The PRC government imposes controls on the convertibility of the Renminbi into foreign currencies and, in certain cases, the remittance of currency out of China. We receive a significant portion of our revenues in Renminbi. Under our current corporate structure, our British Virgin Islands holding company may rely on dividend payments from our PRC subsidiaries to fund any cash and financing requirements we may have. Under existing PRC foreign exchange regulations, payments of current account items, including profit distributions, interest payments and trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions, can be made in foreign currencies without prior approval of SAFE, by complying with certain procedural requirements. Specifically, under the existing exchange restrictions, without prior approval of SAFE, cash generated from the operations of our PRC subsidiaries in China may be used to pay dividends to our Company. However, approval from or registration with appropriate government authorities is required where Renminbi is to be converted into foreign currency and remitted out of China to pay capital expenses such as the repayment of loans denominated in foreign currencies. As a result, we need to obtain SAFE approval to use cash generated from the operations of our PRC subsidiaries to pay off their respective debt in a currency other than Renminbi owed to entities outside China, or to make other capital expenditure payments outside China in a currency other than Renminbi. If such approval is withheld or the PRC government imposes other restrictions on the convertibility of Renminbi into foreign currencies, we may not be able to utilize our revenues effectively, and as a result, our business and results of operations may be materially adversely affected, and the value of our ordinary shares may decrease.

  

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U.S. regulatory bodies may be limited in their ability to conduct investigations or inspections of our operations in China.

 

The SEC, the U.S. Department of Justice and other U.S. authorities may also have difficulties in bringing and enforcing actions against us or our directors or executive officers in the PRC. The SEC has stated that there are significant legal and other obstacles to obtaining information needed for investigations or litigation in China. China has recently adopted a revised securities law that became effective on March 1, 2020, Article 177 of which provides, among other things, that no overseas securities regulator is allowed to directly conduct an investigation or evidence collection activities within the territory of the PRC. Accordingly, without governmental approval in China, no entity or individual in China may provide documents and information relating to securities business activities to overseas regulators when it is under direct investigation or evidence discovery conducted by overseas regulators, which could present significant legal and other obstacles to obtaining information needed for investigations and litigation conducted outside of China.

 

A recent joint statement by the SEC and the PCAOB, proposed rule changes submitted by Nasdaq, and the HFCA Act all call for additional and more stringent criteria to be applied to emerging market companies upon assessing the qualification of their auditors, especially the non-U.S. auditors who are not inspected by the PCAOB.

 

On April 21, 2020, SEC Chairman Jay Clayton and PCAOB Chairman William D. Duhnke III, along with other senior SEC staff, released a joint statement highlighting the risks associated with investing in companies based in or having substantial operations in emerging markets including China. The joint statement emphasized the risks associated with lack of access for the PCAOB to inspect auditors and audit work papers in China and higher risks of fraud in emerging markets.

 

On May 18, 2020, Nasdaq filed three proposals with the SEC to (i) apply minimum offering size requirement for companies primarily operating in “Restrictive Market,” (ii) adopt a new requirement relating to the qualification of management or board of directors for Restrictive Market companies, and (iii) apply additional and more stringent criteria to an applicant or listed company based on the qualifications of the company’s auditors.

 

On May 20, 2020, the Senate passed the HFCA Act, requiring a foreign company to certify that it is not owned or manipulated by a foreign government if the PCAOB is unable to audit specified reports because the company uses a foreign auditor not subject to PCAOB inspection. If the PCAOB is unable to inspect the company’s auditors for three consecutive years, the company’s securities are prohibited from trading on a national exchange.

 

On March 24, 2021, the SEC announced that it had adopted interim final amendments to implement congressionally mandated submission and disclosure requirements of the HFCA Act . The interim final amendments will apply to registrants that the SEC identifies as having filed an annual report on Forms 10-K, 20-F, 40-F or N-CSR with an audit report issued by a registered public accounting firm that is located in a foreign jurisdiction and that the PCAOB has determined it is unable to inspect or investigate completely because of a position taken by an authority in that jurisdiction. The SEC will implement a process for identifying such a registrant and any such identified registrant will be required to submit documentation to the SEC establishing that it is not owned or controlled by a governmental entity in that foreign jurisdiction, and will also require disclosure in the registrant’s annual report regarding the audit arrangements of, and governmental influence on, such a registrant. We will be required to comply with these rules if the SEC identifies us as having a “non-inspection” year under the related process that will be implemented by the SEC.

 

On June 22, 2021, the U.S. Senate passed the Accelerating Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act and on December 29, 2022, the Consolidated Appropriations Act was signed into law by President Biden, which contained, among other things, an identical provision to Accelerating Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act and amended the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act by requiring the SEC to prohibit an issuer’s securities from trading on any U.S. stock exchanges if its auditor is not subject to PCAOB inspections for two consecutive years instead of three, thus reducing the time period before our securities may be prohibited from trading or delisted.

  

On September 22, 2021, the PCAOB adopted rules to create a framework for the PCAOB to use when determining, as contemplated under the HFCA Act, whether it is unable to inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms located in a foreign jurisdiction because of a position taken by one or more authorities in that jurisdiction.

 

On December 2, 2021, the SEC adopted amendments to finalize rules implementing the submission and disclosure requirements in the HFCA Act. The rules apply to registrants that the SEC identifies as having filed an annual report with an audit report issued by a registered public accounting firm that is located in a foreign jurisdiction and that the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely because of a position taken by an authority in a foreign jurisdiction.

 

On December 16, 2021, the PCAOB issued a report on its determinations that it is unable to inspect or investigate completely PCAOB-registered public accounting firms headquartered in China and in Hong Kong because of positions taken by PRC and Hong Kong authorities in those jurisdictions. The PCAOB has made such designations as mandated under the HFCA Act. Pursuant to each annual determination by the PCAOB, the SEC will, on an annual basis, identify issuers that have used non-inspected audit firms and thus are at risk of such suspensions in the future.

 

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On August 26, 2022, the CSRC, the MOF, and the PCAOB signed the Protocol, governing inspections and investigations of audit firms based in China and Hong Kong. The Protocol remains unpublished and is subject to further explanation and implementation. Pursuant to the fact sheet with respect to the Protocol disclosed by the SEC, the PCAOB shall have independent discretion to select any issuer audits for inspection or investigation and has the unfettered ability to transfer information to the SEC. On December 15, 2022, the PCAOB Board determined that the PCAOB was able to secure complete access to inspect and investigate registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong and voted to vacate its previous determinations to the contrary. However, should PRC authorities obstruct or otherwise fail to facilitate the PCAOB’s access in the future, the PCAOB Board will consider the need to issue a new determination.

 

The PCAOB has been able to inspect our auditor, WWC P.C., an independent registered public accounting firm with its headquarters in San Mateo, California, and its latest inspection has been ongoing since November 2023. As such, it is not subject to the designations issued by the PCAOB on December 16, 2021. However, if the PCAOB is unable to inspect our accounting firm in a foreign jurisdiction during any period of three consecutive years or we become owned or controlled by a government in that foreign jurisdiction in the future, the HFCA Act may require our ordinary shares to be delisted from the Nasdaq Stock Market or any exchange on which our securities are traded in the future.

  

The recent developments would add uncertainties to our offering and may result in prohibitions on the trading of our ordinary shares on the Nasdaq Stock Market, if our auditors fail to meet the PCAOB inspection requirement in time.

 

We plan to empower our audit committee to take the PCAOB’s lack of inspection, as applicable, into account in connection with the oversight of our independent registered public accounting firm’s audit procedures and establish relevant internal quality control procedures. However, we cannot assure you that our audit committee’s oversight would be effective. In addition, the SEC may initiate proceedings against our independent registered public accounting firm, whether in connection with an audit of our Company or other China-based companies, which could result in the imposition of penalties against our independent registered public accounting firm, such as suspension of its ability to practice before the SEC. All of these could cause our shareholders and investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information and procedures and the quality of our financial statements, which may have a material effect on our business. 

 

Risks Related to Our Ordinary Shares

 

Future sales of our ordinary shares, whether by us or our shareholders, could cause the price of our ordinary shares to decline.

 

If our existing shareholders sell, or indicate an intent to sell, substantial amounts of our ordinary shares in the public market, the trading price of our ordinary shares could decline significantly. Similarly, the perception in the public market that our shareholders might sell our ordinary shares could also depress the market price of our shares. A decline in the price of our ordinary shares might impede our ability to raise capital through the issuance of additional ordinary shares or other equity securities. In addition, the issuance and sale by us of additional ordinary shares, or securities convertible into or exercisable for our ordinary shares, or the perception that we will issue such securities, could reduce the trading price for our ordinary shares as well as make future sales of equity securities by us less attractive or not feasible. The sale of ordinary shares issued upon the exercise of our outstanding warrants could further dilute the holdings of our then existing shareholders.

  

We do not know whether a market for the ordinary shares will be sustained or what the trading price of the ordinary shares will be and as a result it may be difficult for you to sell your ordinary shares.

 

Although our ordinary shares trade on Nasdaq, an active trading market for the ordinary shares may not be sustained. It may be difficult for you to sell your ordinary shares without depressing the market price for the ordinary shares. As a result of these and other factors, you may not be able to sell your ordinary shares. Further, an inactive market may also impair our ability to raise capital by selling ordinary shares, or may impair our ability to enter into strategic partnerships or acquire companies or products by using our ordinary shares as consideration.

 

Securities analysts may not cover our ordinary shares and this may have a negative impact on the market price of our ordinary shares.

 

The trading market for our ordinary shares will depend, in part, on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. We do not have any control over independent analysts (provided that we have engaged various non-independent analysts). We do not currently have and may never obtain research coverage by independent securities and industry analysts. If no independent securities or industry analysts commence coverage of us, the trading price for our ordinary shares would be negatively impacted. If we obtain independent securities or industry analyst coverage and if one or more of the analysts who covers us downgrades our ordinary shares, changes their opinion of our shares or publishes inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the price of our ordinary shares would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts ceases coverage of us or fails to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our ordinary shares could decrease and we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could cause the price and trading volume of our ordinary shares to decline.

 

Because we do not expect to pay dividends in the foreseeable future, you must rely on the price appreciation of our ordinary shares for a return on your investment.

 

We currently intend to retain most, if not all, of our available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and growth of our business. As a result, we do not expect to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Therefore, you should not rely on an investment in our ordinary shares as a source for any future dividend income.

 

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Our board of directors has complete discretion as to whether to distribute dividends, subject to certain requirements of British Virgin Islands law. In addition, our shareholders may by ordinary resolution declare a dividend, but no dividend may exceed the amount recommended by our board of directors. Under British Virgin Islands law, a British Virgin Islands company may pay a dividend out of either profit or share premium account, provided that in no circumstances may a dividend be paid if this would result in the company being unable to pay its debts as they fall due in the ordinary course of business. Even if our board of directors decides to declare and pay dividends, the timing, amount and form of future dividends, if any, will depend on, among other things, our future results of operations and cash flow, our capital requirements and surplus, the amount of distributions, if any, received by us from our subsidiaries, our financial condition, contractual restrictions, and other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors. Accordingly, the return on your investment in our ordinary shares will likely depend entirely upon any future price appreciation of our ordinary shares. There is no guarantee that our ordinary shares will appreciate in value or even maintain the price at which you purchased the ordinary shares. You may not realize a return on your investment in our ordinary shares and you may even lose your entire investment in our ordinary shares.

 

Techniques employed by short sellers may drive down the market price of our ordinary shares.

 

Short selling is the practice of selling securities that the seller does not own but rather has borrowed from a third party with the intention of buying identical securities back at a later date to return to the lender. The short seller hopes to profit from a decline in the value of the securities between the sale of the borrowed securities and the purchase of the replacement shares, as the short seller expects to pay less in that purchase than it received in the sale. As it is in the short seller’s interest for the price of the security to decline, many short sellers publish, or arrange for the publication of, negative opinions regarding the relevant issuer and its business prospects in order to create negative market momentum and generate profits for themselves after selling a security short. These short attacks have, in the past, led to selling of shares in the market.

 

Other public companies listed in the United States that have substantial operations in China have been the subject of short selling. Much of the scrutiny and negative publicity has centered on allegations of a lack of effective internal control over financial reporting resulting in financial and accounting irregularities and mistakes, inadequate corporate governance policies or a lack of adherence thereto and, in many cases, allegations of fraud. As a result, many of these companies are now conducting internal and external investigations into the allegations and, in the interim, are subject to shareholder lawsuits and/or SEC enforcement actions.

 

We may in the future be the subject of unfavorable allegations made by short sellers. Any such allegations may be followed by periods of instability in the market price of our ordinary shares and negative publicity. If and when we become the subject of any unfavorable allegations, whether such allegations are proven to be true or untrue, we could be required to expend a significant amount of resources to investigate such allegations and/or defend ourselves. While we would strongly defend against any such short seller attacks, we may be constrained in the manner in which we can proceed against the relevant short seller by principles of freedom of speech, applicable federal or state law or issues of commercial confidentiality. Such a situation could be costly and time- consuming and could distract our management from growing our business. Even if such allegations are ultimately proven to be groundless, allegations against us could severely impact our business operations and shareholder’s equity, and the value of any investment in our ordinary shares could be greatly reduced or rendered worthless.

 

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

 

Not applicable.

 

ITEM 1C. CYBERSECURITY

 

Cybersecurity Risk Management and Strategy

 

We have processes for assessing, identifying and managing cybersecurity risks, which are an integral part of decision-making at every level. Such processes include physical, procedural and technical safeguards, response plans, and routine review of our policies and procedures to identify risks and refine our practices. We have integrated cybersecurity risk management into our broader enterprise risk management framework to promote a company-wide culture of cybersecurity risk awareness and management.

 

We do not believe that any risks from cybersecurity threats, nor any previous cybersecurity incidents, have materially affected us. However, the sophistication of cyber threats continues to increase, and the preventative actions that we have taken and continues to take to reduce the risk of cyber incidents and protect its systems and information may not successfully protect against all cyber incidents. For more information on how cybersecurity risk may materially affect our business strategy, results of operations, or financial condition, please refer to Item 1A Risk Factors.

 

Cybersecurity Governance

 

Our Audit Committee of the Board of Directors is responsible for overseeing cybersecurity risk and periodically updates our Board of Directors on such matters. The Audit Committee regularly reviews and discusses with management the strategies, processes, procedures and controls pertaining to the management of our information technology operations, including cyber risks and cybersecurity. The Audit Committee regularly and management the strategies continuously analyzes cybersecurity and resiliency risks to our business, considers industry trends and implements controls, as appropriate, to mitigate these risks.

 

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ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

 

The address of our principal executive offices and corporate offices is 50 Millstone Road, Building 400, Suite 130, East Windsor, NJ 08512, USA.

 

Our office in China is located at 11-F, Building #12, Sunking Plaza, Gaojiao Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China, 311122. Our manufacturing and R&D facilities are all located in Xinchang County, Zhejiang Province, China. 

 

Properties Owned by us

 

As of December 31, 2023, Greenland held land use rights of four parcels of land with an aggregate site area of approximately 81,171 square meters, located in Xinchang County, Zhejiang Province, PRC. The terms of these land use rights are due to expire on November 14, 2062.

 

As of December 31, 2023, Greenland held three building ownership certificates for three buildings with an aggregate gross floor area of approximately 44,751 square meters. These properties are primarily used for production and office purposes.

 

Properties Leased by us

 

As of December 31, 2023, Greenland leased an office space with an aggregate floor area of approximately 1,440 square feet in New Jersey and a monthly rent of $2,820.

 

As of December 31, 2023, Greenland leased an assembly space with an aggregate floor area of approximately 54,121 square feet in Maryland and a monthly rent of $46,944.

 

Greenland will continue to pursue additional properties to further support the expansion of its HEVI business in the United States.

 

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

 

From time to time, we may become involved in various lawsuits and legal proceedings which arise in the ordinary course of business. Litigation is subject to inherent uncertainties, and an adverse result in these or other matters may arise from time to time that may harm our business. There are currently no legal proceedings or claims that we believe will have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or operating results, except the following matter.

 

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

 

Not applicable.

 

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PART II

 

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED SHAREHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

 

Market Information for Ordinary Shares

 

Our ordinary shares are traded on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “GTEC.” Our ordinary shares commenced public trading on August 8, 2018.

 

The market price of our ordinary shares is subject to significant fluctuations in response to variations in our quarterly operating results, general trends in the market, and other factors, over many of which we have little or no control. In addition, broad market fluctuations, as well as general economic, business, and political conditions, may adversely affect the market for our ordinary shares, regardless of our actual or projected performance. We cannot assure you that there will be a market for our ordinary shares in the future.

 

As of April 12, 2024, the last sale price reported on the Nasdaq Capital Market for our ordinary shares was approximately $1.96 per share. 

 

Dividend Policy

 

We intend to retain all of our available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and growth of our subsidiaries’ business. As such, we do not expect to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future.

 

Shareholders of Record

 

As of April 16, 2024, we had eleven (11) recorded holders of our ordinary shares. This number excludes any estimate by us of the number of beneficial owners of shares held in street name, the accuracy of which cannot be guaranteed. 

 

Transfer Agent

 

The transfer agent for our ordinary shares is Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, located at 1 State Street 30th Floor, New York, NY 10004-1561. The telephone number of Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company is (212) 509-4000.

 

Equity Compensation Plan Information

 

For information on the securities authorized for issuance under our equity compensation plan, please see “Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Shareholder Matters.”

 

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

 

During the fiscal years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, we did not have sales of unregistered securities other than those already disclosed in the quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and the current reports on Form 8-K.

 

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

 

None.

 

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ITEM 6. [RESERVED]

 

ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS OF GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION

 

The following discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations relates to the operations and financial condition reported in the consolidated financial statements of the Company thereto, which appear elsewhere in this Report, and should be read in conjunction with such financial statements and related notes included in this Report. Except for the historical information contained herein, the following discussion, as well as other information in this Report, contain “forward-looking statements,” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act, and are subject to the “safe harbor” created by those sections. Actual results and the timing of the events may differ materially from those contained in these forward-looking statements due to many factors, including those discussed in the “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” set forth elsewhere in this Report.

 

Overview

 

The Company was incorporated on December 28, 2017 as a British Virgin Islands Company with limited liability. The Company was incorporated as a blank check company for the purpose of effecting a merger, capital stock exchange, asset acquisition, stock purchase, recapitalization, reorganization or similar business combination with one or more target businesses. Following the Business Combination (as described below) in October 2019, the Company changed its name from Greenland Acquisition Corporation to Greenland Technologies Holding Corporation.

 

On July 27, 2018, we consummated our initial public offering of 4,400,000 units, including a partial exercise by the underwriters of their over-allotment option in the amount of 400,000 units. Each unit consisted of one ordinary share, no par value, one warrant to purchase one-half of one ordinary share, and one right to receive one-tenth of one ordinary share upon the consummation of our Business Combination, pursuant to a registration statement on Form S-1. Warrants must be exercised in multiples of two warrants, and each two warrants are exercisable for one ordinary share at an exercise price of $11.50 per share. The units were sold in our initial public offering at an offering price of $10.00 per unit, generated $44,000,000 (before underwriting discounts and offering expenses) in gross proceeds.

 

Simultaneously with the consummation of our initial public offering, we completed a private placement of 282,000 units, issued to the Sponsor and Chardan, which generated $2,820,000 in gross proceeds. We also sold to Chardan (and its designees), for $100, an option to purchase up to 240,000 units exercisable at $11.50 per unit (or an aggregate exercise price of $2,760,000) commencing on consummation of the Business Combination. The unit purchase option may be exercised for cash or on a cashless basis, at the holder’s option, and expired on July 24, 2023. On February 18, 2021, Chardan exercised its option to purchase 120,000 units.

 

On October 24, 2019, we consummated our Business Combination with Zhongchai Holding following a special meeting, where the shareholders of Greenland considered and approved, among other matters, a proposal to adopt and entered into the Share Exchange Agreement that allowed Greenland to acquire from the Seller all of the issued and outstanding equity interests of Zhongchai Holding in exchange for 7,500,000 newly issued ordinary shares, no par value of Greenland, issued to the Seller. As a result, the Seller became the controlling shareholder of Greenland, and Zhongchai Holding became a directly and wholly owned subsidiary of Greenland. The Business Combination was accounted for as a reverse merger effected by a share exchange, wherein Zhongchai Holding is considered the acquirer for accounting and financial reporting purposes.

  

In connection with the Business Combination, all the outstanding rights of the Company were converted into 468,200 ordinary shares on a one-tenth (1/10) ordinary share per right basis if holders of the rights elected to convert their rights into the underlying ordinary shares.

 

On December 17, 2019, the Company’s warrants, which were trading under the ticker symbol “GTECW,” were delisted from the Nasdaq Capital Market by the Nasdaq Listing Qualifications Staff.

 

On January 14, 2020, HEVI was incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware. HEVI is a 100% owned subsidiary of Greenland. HEVI focuses on the production and sale of electric industrial equipment, including electric industrial vehicles, for the North American market.

 

Greenland serves as the parent company to Zhongchai Holding. Through Zhongchai Holding and its subsidiaries, Greenland develops and manufactures traditional transmission products for material handling machineries and electric industrial heavy equipment, including electric industrial vehicles.

 

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Through its PRC subsidiaries, Greenland offers transmission products, which are key components for forklift trucks used in manufacturing and logistic applications, such as factories, workshops, warehouses, fulfilment centers, shipyards, and seaports. Forklifts play an important role in the logistic systems of many companies across different industries in China and globally. Generally, industries with the largest demand for forklifts include the transportation, warehousing logistics, electrical machinery, and automobile industries. Greenland’s revenue decreased from approximately $90.83 million in the fiscal year 2022 to $90.33 million in the fiscal year 2023. However, excluding the impact of exchange rate fluctuation, the actual revenue increased 4.3%. The actual increase in revenue was primarily the result of an increase in the Company’s sales volume, driven by decreasing market demand for the year ended December 31, 2023. Based on our revenues in the fiscal years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, we believe that Greenland is one of the major developers and manufacturers of transmission products for small and medium-sized forklift trucks in China.

 

Greenland’s transmission products are used in 1-ton to 15-tons forklift trucks, some with mechanical shift and some with automatic shift. Greenland sells these transmission products directly to forklift-truck manufacturers. In the fiscal years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, Greenland sold an aggregate of 149,543 and 129,686 sets of transmission products, respectively, to more than 100 forklift manufacturers in the PRC.

 

There is increasing demand for electric industrial heavy equipment powered by sustainable energy in order to reduce air pollution and lower carbon emissions. Utilizing Greenland’s expertise in manufacturing and R&D, it established HEVI in January 2020 to create clean and sustainable products and services in the heavy industrial equipment industry that help organizations pursue a carbon neutral operation. HEVI designs, develops, and manufactures electric heavy industrial equipment and accessories and sells them directly to the end consumers in various markets in the United States. HEVI’s product line available for purchase includes the GEL-5000 all-electric lithium 5.0-ton rated load wheeled front loader, GEL-1800 all-electric lithium 1.8-ton rated load wheeled front loader, the GEX-8000 all-electric lithium 8.0-ton rated load excavator, and the GEF-series of electric lithium forklifts. HEVI also introduced mobile DC battery chargers to support a growing market of EV applications requiring DC charging capabilities in the North America market. These products are available for purchase in the U.S. market. In August 2022, HEVI launched a 54,000 square foot industrial electric vehicle assembly site in Baltimore, Maryland to support local assembly, services and distribution of its product line.

 

Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Our Operations and Financial Performance

 

The COVID-19 pandemic has severely affected global economy. In an effort to contain the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, in 2021 and 2022, China and many other countries took precautionary measures, such as imposing travel restrictions, quarantining individuals infected with or suspected of being infected with COVID-19, encouraging or requiring people to work remotely, and canceling public activities, among others.

 

Since 2021, a few waves of COVID-19 infections emerged in various regions of China, and in response, the Chinese government implemented certain anti-COVID measures and protocols. Chinese industries have gradually resumed businesses as the Chinese government lifted its COVID-19 protocols and measures since December 2022. The COVID-19 pandemic had a limited impact on our financial condition and results of operations in the fiscal years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022. For the fiscal years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, we experienced decreased and decreased raw material costs, respectively.  

 

The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic may continue to affect our operations and financial performance in the future will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted at this time.

 

Recent Developments 

 

On February 14, 2024, the Company issued a press release announcing its intent, as approved by its board of directors, to explore a separation of its electric industrial vehicles and drivetrain systems segments into two independent, publicly-traded companies by spinning off its drivetrain systems business. After the proposed spin-off, Greenland would be solely comprised of the Company’s current industrial electric vehicle business under its HEVI brand.

 

39

 

 

Results of Operations

 

For the fiscal years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022

 

Overview

 

   For the Fiscal Years Ended December 31, 
   2023   2022   $ Change   % Variance 
                 
Revenues  $90,333,240   $90,830,674   $(497,434)   (0.5)
Cost of Goods Sold   65,757,237    70,995,940    (5,238,703)   (7.4)
Gross Profit   24,576,003    19,834,734    4,741,269    23.9 
Selling expenses   2,319,835    2,630,226    (310,391)   (11.8)
General and administrative expenses   6,052,541    5,459,020    593,521    10.9 
Research and development expenses   5,424,400    5,786,946    (362,546)   (6.3)
Total Operating Expenses   13,796,776    13,876,192    (79,416)   (0.6)
Income from operations   10,779,227    5,958,542    4,820,685    80.9 
Interest income   143,094    56,817    86,277    151.9 
Interest expenses   (250,410)   (402,968)   152,558    (37.9)
Loss on disposal of property and equipment   (31,072)   (1,511)   (29,561)   1,956.4 
Impairment for investments   (300,000)   -    (300,000)   100.0 
Change in fair value of the warrant liability   1,398,774    (2,814,012)   4,212,786    (149.7)
Allowance for expected credit loss-related parties receivable   (34,462,992)   -    (34,462,992)   100.0 
Remeasurement gain from change in functional currency   (2,490,646)   -    (2,490,646)   100.0 
Government subsidies income   692,443    1,029,370    (336,927)   (32.7)
Other income   1,212,354    676,136    536,218    79.3 
Income(Loss) before income tax   (23,309,228)   4,502,374    (27,811,602)   (617.7)
Income tax   1,708,262    699,691    1,008,571    144.1 
Net income(Loss)  $(25,017,490)  $3,802,683   $(28,820,173)   (757.9)

 

Components of Results of Operations

 

  

For the Fiscal Years ended

December 31,

 
Component of Results of Operations  2023   2022 
     
Revenues  $90,333,240   $90,830,674 
Cost of Goods Sold   65,757,237    70,995,940 
Gross Profit   24,576,003    19,834,734 
Operating Expenses   13,796,776    13,876,192 
Net Income(Loss)  $(25,017,490)  $3,802,683 

 

Revenue

 

Greenland’s revenue decreased by approximately $0.50 million, or approximately 0.5%, to approximately $90.33 million for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, from approximately $90.83 million for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022. However, excluding the impact of exchange rate fluctuation, our revenue for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023 increased by approximately 4.3% compared to the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022. The actual increase in revenue was primarily the result of an increase in the Company’s sales volume, driven by increasing market demand for the year ended December 31, 2023.

 

Cost of Goods Sold

 

Greenland’s cost of goods sold consists primarily of material costs, freight charges, purchasing and receiving costs, inspection costs, warehousing costs, internal transfer costs, wages, employee compensation, amortization, depreciation and related costs, which are directly attributable to Greenland’s production activities. The write down of inventory using net realizable value impairment test is also recorded in cost of goods sold. The total cost of goods sold decreased by approximately $5.24 million, or approximately 7.4%, to approximately $65.76 million for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, from approximately $71.00 million for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022. Cost of goods sold decreased in fiscal year 2023 compared to fiscal year 2022 due to a decrease in raw material costs.

 

Gross Profit

 

Greenland’s gross profit increased by approximately $4.75 million, or 23.9%, to approximately $24.58 million for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, from approximately $19.83 million for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022. For the fiscal years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, Greenland’s gross margin was approximately 27.21% and 21.84%, respectively. The increase in gross margin in fiscal year 2023 compared to fiscal year 2022 was primarily due to a decrease in raw material costs and a shift in Greenland’s product mix towards higher value and more sophisticated products, such as hydraulic transmission products.

 

40

 

 

Operating Expense

 

Greenland’s operating expenses consist of selling expenses, general and administrative expenses and research and development expenses. Greenland’s operating expenses were $13.80 million for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, representing a decrease of 0.6% from $13.88 million for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022. The decrease in operating expenses was primarily due to a decrease in the after-sales service fees and advertising and marketing expenses offset by an increase in staff salary and lease costs in fiscal year 2023.

 

Selling Expenses

 

Greenland’s selling expenses mainly include operating expenses such as sales staff payroll, traveling expenses and transportation expenses. Selling expenses decreased by $0.31 million, or 11.8%, to approximately $2.32 million for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, from approximately $2.63 million for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022. The decrease in selling expenses was mainly due to a decrease in the after-sales service fees and advertising and marketing expenses for the year ended December 31, 2023.

 

General and Administrative Expenses

 

Greenland’s general and administrative expenses include management and office staff salaries and employee benefits, depreciation for office facility and office furniture and equipment, travel and entertainment, legal and accounting, consulting fees and other office expenses. General and administrative expenses increased by approximately $0.59 million, or approximately 10.9%, to approximately $6.05 million for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, from approximately $5.46 million for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022. The fundamental reasons for the rise in the general and administrative expenses were an increase in staff salary and an increase in lease cost.

  

Research and Development Expenses

 

R&D expenses consist of R&D personnel compensation, costs of materials used in R&D projects, and depreciation costs for research-related equipment. R&D expenses decreased by approximately $0.36 million, or 6.3%, to approximately $5.42 million for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, from approximately $5.79 million for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022. Such decrease was primarily attributable to a decrease in the Company’s R&D activities for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023.

 

Income from Operations

 

As a result of the foregoing, income from operations for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023 was approximately $10.78 million, representing an increase of approximately $4.82 million, from approximately $5.96 million for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022.

 

Interest Income and Interest Expenses

 

Greenland’s interest income was approximately $0.14 million for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, representing an increase of approximately $0.08 million, or 151.9%, from approximately $0.06 million for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022. The increase in interest income was because more cash was deposited in banks during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023 as compared to the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022.

 

Greenland’s interest expenses were approximately $0.25 million for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, a decrease of approximately $0.15 million, or 37.9%, as compared to approximately $0.40 million for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022. The decrease was primarily due to a reduction of our short-term loans for the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2022.

 

Change in fair value of the warrant liability

 

Greenland recognized a gain of approximately $1.40 million for the investor warrant from a change in fair value of the warrant liability for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to a loss of approximately $2.81 million for the investor warrant, from a change in fair value of the warrant liability for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022.

 

Impairment for investments

 

Impairment for investments for the year ended December 31, 2023 was approximately $0.30 million, representing an increase of approximately $0.30 million, as compared to nil for the year ended December 31, 2022. The loss is related to the HEVI’s investment in Princeton Nuenergy Inc and Learn EV. HEVI held a low percentage of equity interests in the invested company as of December 31, 2023, and we recorded fully impairment of the investment.

 

Allowance for expected credit loss-related parties receivable 

 

As of December 31, 2023, Cenntro Holding Limited owed Greenland an aggregate of $34.46 million. Greenland does not expect the amount of $34.46 million due from Cenntro Holding Limited will be repaid. As a result, Greenland recorded a full provision for expected credit loss for the year ended December 31, 2023.

 

Other Income

 

Greenland’s other income was approximately $1.21 million for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, an increase of approximately $0.54 million, or 79.3%, as compared to approximately $0.68 million of other income for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022. The increase was primarily due to an increase in income from wealth management products and VAT deduction for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023 as compared to the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022.

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Remeasurement loss from change in functional currency

 

Greenland’s remeasurement loss from change in functional currency was approximately $2.49 million for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, a decrease of approximately $2.49 million, as compared to nil of remeasurement loss from change in functional currency for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022. On July 10, 2023, the Company’s subsidiary, Shanghai Hengyu Business Management Consulting Co., Ltd., was dissolved under the laws of the PRC, and we recorded a remeasurement loss from change in functional currency of approximately $2.49 million, due to Shanghai Hengyu’s main assets due from related party in the amount of $36.46 million transferred to Hengyu Capital, which was originally denominated in RMB in Shanghai Hengyu, transferred to Hengyu Capital and denominated in USD.

 

Government subsidies income

 

Greenland’s government subsidies income was approximately $0.69 million for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, a decrease of approximately $0.54 million, as compared to approximately $1.03 million of government subsidies income for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022. The decrease was primarily due to a decrease in policy incentive income for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023 as compared to the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022.

 

Income Taxes

 

Greenland’s income tax was approximately $1.71 million for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, compared to approximately $0.70 million for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022.

 

Zhejiang Zhongchai obtained a “high-tech enterprise” status near the end of the fiscal year of 2022. Such status allows Zhejiang Zhongchai to enjoy a reduced statutory income tax rate of 15%, rather than the standard PRC corporate income tax rate of 25%. Income tax for both fiscal years 2023 and 2022 were calculated based on a rate of 15%. The “high-tech enterprise” status is reevaluated by relevant Chinese government agencies every three years. Zhejiang Zhongchai’s current “high-tech enterprise” will be reevaluated near the end of 2025.

 

Greenland’s other PRC subsidiaries are subject to different income tax rates. Hangzhou Greenland, the wholly owned subsidiary of Zhongchai Holding, is subject to the 25% standard income tax rate Greenland is a holding company registered in the British Virgin Islands and is not subject to tax on income or capital gains under the current British Virgin Islands law. In addition, upon payment of dividends to its shareholders, the Company will not be subject to any British Virgin Islands withholding tax.

 

On January 14, 2020, Greenland established HEVI, its wholly owned subsidiary in the state of Delaware. HEVI promotes sales of sustainable alternative products for the heavy industrial equipment industry, including electric industrial vehicles, in the North American market. On December 22, 2017, the U.S. federal government enacted the 2017 Tax Act. The 2017 Tax Act includes a number of changes in existing tax law impacting businesses, including the transition tax, a one-time deemed repatriation of cumulative undistributed foreign earnings and a permanent reduction in the U.S. federal statutory rate from 35% to 21%, effective on January 1, 2018. ASC 740 requires companies to recognize the effect of tax law changes in the period of enactment, and accordingly, the effects must be recognized on companies’ calendar year-end financial statements, even though the effective date for most provisions is January 1, 2018. Since HEVI was established in 2020, the one-time transition tax did not have any impact on the Company’s tax provision and there was no undistributed accumulated earnings and profits as of December 31, 2023.

 

Net Income (Loss)

 

As a result of the foregoing, Greenland’s net loss was approximately $25.02 million for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, representing a decrease of approximately $28.82 million, from the net income of approximately $3.8 million for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022.

 

Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

Greenland is a holding company incorporated in the British Virgin Islands. Current PRC regulations permit our PRC subsidiaries to pay dividends to us only out of their accumulated profits, if any, determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. In addition, our PRC subsidiaries are required to set aside at least 10% of their respective accumulated profits each year, if any, to fund certain reserve funds until the total amount set aside reaches 50% of their respective registered capital. Our PRC subsidiaries may also allocate a portion of their after-tax profits based on PRC accounting standards to employee welfare and bonus funds at their discretion. These reserves are not distributable as cash dividends.

 

We have funded working capital and other capital requirements primarily by equity contributions, cash flow from operations, short-term bank loans and bank acceptance notes, and long-term bank loans. Cash is required primarily to purchase raw materials, repay debts and pay salaries, office expenses, income taxes and other operating expenses.

 

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, our PRC subsidiary, Zhejiang Zhongchai, paid off approximately $12.42 million in bank loan and maintained $28.19 million cash on hand. For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022, our PRC subsidiary, Zhejiang Zhongchai, paid off approximately $10.79 million in bank loan, approximately $2.16 million in related parties loan, and maintained $19.73 million cash on hand. We plan to maintain the current debt structure and rely on governmentally supported loans with lower cost, if necessary.

 

Government subsidies mainly consist of an incentive granted by the Chinese government to encourage transformation of fixed assets in China and other miscellaneous subsidies from the Chinese government. Government subsidies are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the subsidy will be received and all conditions be completed. Total government subsidies recorded under long-term liabilities were $1.53 million and $1.81 million as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.

 

The Company currently plans to fund its operations mainly through cash flow from its operations, renewal of bank borrowings, additional equity financing, and continuation of financial support from its shareholders and affiliates controlled by its principal shareholders, if necessary. The Company might implement a stricter policy on sales to less creditworthy customers and plans to continue to improve its collection efforts on accounts with outstanding balances. The Company is actively working with customers and suppliers and expects to fully collect the remaining balance.

 

We believe that the Company has sufficient cash, even with uncertainty in the Company’s manufacturing and sale of electric industrial heavy equipment in the future and decline on sale of transmission products. However, our capital contribution from existing funding sources, to operate for the next 12 months will be sufficient. We remain confident and expect to continue to generate positive cash flow from our operations.

42

 

 

We may need additional cash resources in the future, if the Company experiences failure in collecting account receivables, changes in business condition, changes in financial condition, or other developments. We may also need additional cash resources, if the Company wishes to pursue opportunities for investment, acquisition, strategic cooperation, or other similar actions. If the Company’s management and its board of directors determine that the cash required for specific corporate activities exceed Greenland’s cash and cash equivalents on hand, the Company may issue debt or equity securities to raise cash.

 

Historically, we have expended considerable resources on building a new factory and paid off a considerable amount of debt, resulting in less available cash. However, we anticipate that our cash flow will continue to improve for fiscal year 2024. More specifically, Zhejiang Zhongchai has completed the construction of a new factory, and our PRC subsidiaries have received COVID-19 related government subsidies. Furthermore, Zhejiang Zhongchai pledged the deed of its new factory as a collateral to banks in order to obtain additional loans, refinance expiring loans, restructure short-term loans, and fund other working capital needs upon acceptable terms to Greenland.

 

Cash and Cash Equivalents

 

Cash equivalents refers to all highly liquid investments purchased with original maturity of three months or less. As of December 31, 2023, Greenland had approximately $22.98 million of cash and cash equivalents, an increase of approximately $6.68 million, or 41.03%, as compared to approximately $16.30 million as of December 31, 2022. The increase of cash and cash equivalents was mainly due to an increase in notes payable, as compared to that as of December 31, 2022.

 

Restricted Cash

 

Restricted cash represents the amount held by a bank as security for bank acceptance notes and therefore is not available for use until the bank acceptance notes are fulfilled or expired, which typically takes less than twelve months. As of December 31, 2023, Greenland had approximately $5.21 million of restricted cash, an increase of approximately $1.78 million, or 51.69%, as compared to approximately $3.43 million as of December 31, 2022. The increase of restricted cash was due to an increase in mortgaged assets.

 

Accounts Receivable

 

As of December 31, 2023, Greenland had approximately $17.35 million of accounts receivables, an increase of approximately $2.25 million, or 14.91%, as compared to approximately $15.10 million as of December 31, 2022. The increase in accounts receivables was due to our slowed down efforts in receivables collections.

 

Greenland recorded approximately $0.87 million and $0.76 million of allowance for expected credit losses as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Greenland conducted an aging analysis of each customer’s delinquent payments to determine whether allowance for expected credit losses is adequate. In establishing the allowance for expected credit losses, Greenland considers historical experience, economic environment, and expected collectability of past due receivables. An estimate of expected credit losses is recorded when collection of the full amount is no longer probable. When bad debts are identified, such debts are written off against the allowance for expected credit losses. Greenland will continuously assess its expected credit losses based on the credit history of and relationships with its customers on a regular basis to determine whether its allowance for expected credit losses on its accounts receivables is adequate. Greenland believes that its collection policies are generally in line with the transmissions industry’s standard in the PRC.

 

Due from Related Party

 

Due from related party was $0.23 million and $36.67 million as of December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively. The balance of due from related parties as of December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022 consisted primarily of other receivables from Cenntro Holding Limited in the amount of $34.46 million and $36.46 million as of December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively. We do not expect the amount of $34.46 million due from Cenntro Holding Limited will be repaid. As a result, we recorded a full provision for expected credit losses for the year ended December 31, 2023.

 

Notes Receivable

 

As of December 31, 2023, Greenland had approximately $27.14 million of notes receivables, which will be collected by us within twelve months. The decrease was approximately $1.61 million, or 5.61%, as compared to approximately $28.75 million as of December 31, 2022.

  

Working Capital 

 

Our working capital was approximately $27.27 million as of December 31, 2023, as compared to $59.70 million as of December 31, 2022. The decrease in working capital of $32.43 million in the fiscal year 2023 as compared with the fiscal year 2022 was primarily contributed to a decrease in cash and cash equivalents and due from related parties-current.

 

43

 

 

Cash Flow

 

  

For the Fiscal Year Ended

December 31,

 
   2023   2022 
     
Net cash provided by operating activities  $2,449,040   $8,122,066 
Net cash provided by(used in) investing activities  $1,070,907   $(775,128)
Net cash provided by(used in) financing activities  $2,865,814   $(4,284,479)
Net increase in cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash  $6,385,761   $3,062,459 
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents  $2,074,570   $(1,134,295)
Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of year  $19,729,056   $17,800,892 
Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of year  $28,189,387   $19,729,056 

 

Operating Activities 

 

Greenland’s net cash provided by operating activities was approximately $2.45 and $8.12 million for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.

 

In the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, the main sources of cash inflow from operating activities were the increase in allowance for expected credit loss-related parties receivable of $34.46 million and depreciation and amortization of $2.19 million. The main causes of changes in cash outflow were net loss of approximately $25.02 million, change in fair value of warrant liability of approximately $1.40 million, changes in other current and noncurrent assets of approximately $6.34 million and changes in accounts receivable of $2.39 million.

 

In the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022, the main sources of cash inflow from operating activities were net income of $3.80 million, changes in notes receivable of $6.07 million, change in fair value of warrant liability of approximately $2.81 million, and depreciation and amortization of $2.44 million. The main causes of changes in cash outflow were changes in other current and noncurrent assets of approximately $7.82 million and changes in accounts payable of $2.08 million.

 

Investing Activities

 

Investing activities resulted a cash inflow of approximately $1.07 million for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023. Cash provided by investing activities for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023 was mainly due to approximately $0.44 million in proceeds from sale of short-term investment and approximately $1.84 million repayment of loans lend to third parties offset by approximately $0.74 million used for purchases of long-term assets.

 

Investing activities resulted a cash outflow of approximately $0.78 million for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022. Cash used in investing activities for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022 was mainly due to approximately $0.53 million used for purchases of long-term assets and approximately $0.25 million used for investment in a joint venture.

 

Financing Activities

 

Financing activities resulted a cash inflow of approximately $2.87 million for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, which was mainly attributable to approximately $6.72 million in proceeds from short-term bank loans and approximately $9.27 million in notes payable. Such amounts were further offset by approximately $12.42 million in repayment of short-term bank loans.

 

Financing activities resulted a cash outflow of approximately $4.28 million for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022, which was mainly attributable to repayment of loans due to related parties in the amount of approximately $2.16 million, repayment of loans due to third parties in the amount of approximately $1.48 million, repayment of notes payable in the amount of approximately $10.85 million and repayment of short-term bank loans in the amount of approximately $10.79 million. Such amounts were further offset by approximately $11.70 million in proceeds from short-term bank loans and approximately $9.20 million in proceeds from equity and debt financing.

 

Credit Risk

 

Credit risk is one of the most significant risks for Greenland’s business. Accounts receivable are typically unsecured and derived from revenues earned from customers, thereby exposing Greenland to credit risk. Credit risk is controlled by the application of credit approvals, limits, and monitoring procedures. Greenland identifies credit risk collectively based on industry, geography, and customer type. This information is monitored regularly by the Company’s management. In measuring the credit risk of sales to customers, Greenland mainly reflects the “probability of default” by the customer on its contractual obligations and considers the current financial position of the customer and the exposures to the customer and its future development.

 

44

 

 

Liquidity Risk

 

Greenland is exposed to liquidity risk when it is unable to provide sufficient capital resources and liquidity to meet its commitments and/or business needs. Liquidity risk is managed by the application of financial position analysis to test if Greenland is in danger of liquidity issues and also by application of monitoring procedures to constantly monitor its conditions and movements. When necessary, Greenland resorts to other financial institutions to obtain additional short-term funding to meet the liquidity shortage.

 

Inflation Risk

 

Greenland is also exposed to inflation risk. Inflationary factors, such as increases in raw material and overhead costs, could impair Greenland’s operating results. Although Greenland does not believe that inflation has had a material impact on its financial position or results of operations to date, a high rate of inflation in the future may have an adverse effect on its ability to maintain current levels of gross margin and operating expenses as a percentage of sales revenues if the selling prices of its products do not increase with such increased costs.

 

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

 

We prepare our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP. In applying accounting principles, it is often required to use estimates. These estimates consider the facts, circumstances and information available, and may be based on subjective inputs, assumptions and information known and unknown to us. Material changes in certain of the estimates that we use could potentially affect, by a material amount, our consolidated financial position and results of operations. Although results may vary, we believe our estimates are reasonable and appropriate. See Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements included under “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” for a summary of our significant accounting policies. The following describes certain of our significant accounting policies that involve more subjective and complex judgments where the effect on our consolidated financial position and operating performance could be material.

 

Revenue Recognition

 

In accordance with ASC Topic 606, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers,” the Company recognizes revenues when goods or services are transferred to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration which the Company expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. In determining when and how revenues are recognized from contracts with customers, the Company performs the following five-step analysis: (i) identification of contract with customer; (ii) determination of performance obligations; (iii) measurement of the transaction price; (iv) allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations, and (v) recognition of revenues when (or as) the Company satisfies each performance obligation. The Company derives revenues from the processing, distribution and sale of its products. The Company recognizes its revenues net of VAT. The Company is subject to VAT which had been levied at the rate of 17% on the invoiced value of sales until April 30, 2018, after which date the rate was reduced to 16%. VAT rate was further reduced to 13% starting from April 1, 2019. Output VAT is borne by customers in addition to the invoiced value of sales and input VAT is borne by the Company in addition to the invoiced value of purchases to the extent not refunded for export sales.

 

Revenues are recognized at a point in time once the Company has determined that the customer has obtained control over the product. Control is typically deemed to have been transferred to the customer when the performance obligation is fulfilled, usually at the time of customers’ acceptance or consumption, at the net sales price (transaction price) and each of the criteria under ASC 606 have been met. Contract terms may require the Company to deliver the finished goods to the customers’ location or the customer may pick up the finished goods at the Company’s factory. International sales are recognized when shipment clears customs and leaves the port.

 

The Company adopted ASC 606 on January 1, 2018, using the transition method of Modified-Retrospective Method (“MRM”). The adoption of ASC 606 had no impact on the Company’s beginning balance of retained earnings.

 

The Company’s contracts are all short-term in nature with a contract term of one year or less. Receivables are recorded when the Company has an unconditional right to consideration.

 

Business Combination

 

On October 24, 2019, we consummated our Business Combination with Zhongchai Holding following a special meeting, where the shareholders of Greenland considered and approved, among other matters, a proposal to adopt and entered into the Share Exchange Agreement, dated as of July 12, 2019, among (i) Greenland, (ii) Zhongchai Holding, (iii) the Sponsor in the capacity as the Purchaser Representative, and (iv) Cenntro Holding Limited, the sole member of Zhongchai Holding.

 

Pursuant to the Share Exchange Agreement, Greenland acquired from the Seller all of the issued and outstanding equity interests of Zhongchai Holding in exchange for 7,500,000 newly issued ordinary shares, no par value of Greenland, to the Seller. As a result, the Seller became the controlling shareholder of Greenland, and Zhongchai Holding became a directly and wholly owned subsidiary of Greenland. The Business Combination was accounted for as a reverse merger effected by a share exchange, wherein Zhongchai Holding is considered the acquirer for accounting and financial reporting purposes.

 

Pursuant to the Finder Agreement, 50,000 newly issued ordinary shares issued to Zhou Hanyi is the finder fee for the Business Combination.

  

45

 

 

Inventories

 

Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value, which is based on estimated selling prices less any further costs expected to be incurred for completion and disposal. Cost of raw materials is calculated using the weighted average method and is based on purchase cost. Work-in-progress and finished goods costs are determined using the weighted average method and comprise direct materials, direct labor and an appropriate proportion of overhead.

 

Income Taxes

 

The Company accounts for income taxes following the liability method pursuant to FASB ASC 740 “Income Taxes”. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the difference between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates that will be in effect in the period in which the differences are expected to reverse. The Company records a valuation allowance to offset deferred tax assets if, based on the weight of available evidence, it is more-likely-than-not that some portion, or all, of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The effect on deferred taxes of a change in tax rate is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.

 

The Company also follows FASB ASC 740, which addresses the determination of whether tax benefits claimed or expected to be claimed on a tax return should be recorded in the financial statements. The Company may recognize the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the financial statements from such a position should be measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than fifty percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. ASC 740 also provides guidance on recognition, classification, interest and penalties on income taxes, accounting in interim periods and requires increased disclosures. As of December 31, 2023, the Company did not have a liability for unrecognized tax benefits. It is the Company’s policy to include penalties and interest expense related to income taxes as a component of other expense and interest expense, respectively, as necessary. The Company’s historical tax years will remain open for examination by the local authorities until the statute of limitations has passed.

 

Off Balance Sheet Arrangements

 

None. 

 

ITEM 7A.  QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

 

Certain information regarding this Item is contained in Item 7 under the headings “Credit Risk,” “Liquidity Risk,” and “Inflation Risk.”

 

46

 

 

ITEM 8.  FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION

CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

FOR THE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2023 and 2022

 

INDEX

 

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm (PCAOB ID: 1171)   F-2
     
Consolidated Balance Sheets   F-4
     
Consolidated Statements of Income and Comprehensive Income   F-6
     
Consolidated Statements of Shareholders’ Equity   F-7
     
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows   F-8
     
Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements   F-10

 

F-1

 

 

 

 

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

 

To: Shareholders and Board of Directors
  Greenland Technologies Holding Corporation

 

Opinion on the Financial Statements

 

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Greenland Technologies Holding Corporation and its subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the related consolidated statements of income and comprehensive incomes, changes in shareholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the years in the two-year period ended December 31, 2023 and the related notes (collectively referred to as the financial statements). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the years in the two-year period ended December 31, 2023, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

 

Emphasis of Matters

 

We draw your attention to Note 23(b), where the Company recorded a full provision for expected credit losses with an aggregate amount in $34.46 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, as the Company does not expect the amount due from Cenntro Holding Limited will be repaid.

 

We also draw your attention to Note 25, where the Company issued a press release on February 14, 2024 announcing its intent to explore a separation of its electric industrial vehicles and drivetrain systems segments into two independent, publicly-traded companies, by spinning off its drivetrain systems business. After the proposed spin-off, the Company would be solely comprised of the Company’s current industrial electric vehicle business under its HEVI brand. Our opinion is not modified with respect to these matters.

 

Basis for Opinion

 

These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

 

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits, we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.

 

Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

 

 

F-2

 

 

 

 

Critical Audit Matters

 

The critical audit matters communicated below are matters arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (i) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (ii) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matters below, providing separate opinions on the critical audit matters or on the accounts or disclosures to which they relate.

 

Valuation of Warrant Liability

 

As described in Notes 17 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company’s warrant liability was $4.1million and $5.5million as of December 31,2023 and 2022, respectively which these amounts were material to the financial statements as a whole. Management applies significant judgments in estimating fair values of warrant liability including selection of valuation methods and significant assumptions used in valuation such as Black–Scholes model and significant inputs into the model.

 

Our principal audit procedures performed to address this critical audit matter included the following:

 

We obtained an understanding of the controls and processes surrounding the evaluation, initial measurement and revaluation of the warrant liability.
   
We evaluated management’s assessment and the conclusions reached to ensure these instruments were recorded in accordance with the relevant accounting guidance.
   
We evaluated the value of these warrant liability by vouching the related agreement.
   
We reviewed and tested the significant assumption and recalculated related underlying data used in the valuation model used by the management to verify the reasonableness of valuation models used.
   
We performed research to determine that the model was appropriate to the facts and circumstances.

 

The accounts relevant to this critical audit matter include the value of the warrant liabilities and the related disclosures in the accompanying notes 17 to the financial statements.

 

/s/ WWC, P.C.  
WWC, P.C.  
   
Certified Public Accountants  

 

We have served as the Company’s auditor since November 16, 2020.

 

San Mateo, California

(PCAOB ID # 1171)

April 16, 2024

 

  

F-3

 

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

AS OF DECEMBER 31, 2023 AND 2022

(AUDITED, IN U.S. DOLLARS)

 

   December 31,   December 31, 
   2023   2022 
ASSETS        
Current assets        
Cash and cash equivalents   $22,981,324   $16,295,695 
Restricted cash    5,208,063    3,433,361 
Short Term Investment    2,818,068    7,800,723 
Notes receivable, net    27,135,249    28,748,879 
Accounts receivable, net    16,483,533    14,337,760 
Inventories, net    24,596,795    23,096,382 
Due from related parties-current, net    225,927    30,214,245 
Advance to suppliers    288,578    412,766 
Prepayments and other current assets    53,204    1,568,687 
Total Current Assets   $99,790,741   $125,908,498 
           
Non-current asset           
Property, plant, equipment and construction in progress, net    13,698,997    15,585,214 
Land use rights, net    3,448,505    3,639,067 
Other intangible assets    189,620    147,465 
Long term investment    
-
    250,000 
Due from related parties-non current, net   
-
    6,455,662 
Deferred tax assets    256,556    219,207 
Operating lease right-of-use assets    2,125,542    2,627,110 
Fixed deposit   9,916,308    
-
 
Other non-current assets    1,050,698    283,118 
Total non-current assets   $30,686,226   $29,206,843 
TOTAL ASSETS   $130,476,967   $155,115,341 

 

F-4

 

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

AS OF DECEMBER 31, 2023 AND 2022 (Continued)

(AUDITED, IN U.S. DOLLARS)

 

   December 31,   December 31, 
   2023   2022 
         
Current Liabilities        
Short-term bank loans   $3,042,296   $8,986,255 
Notes payable-bank acceptance notes    36,712,562    28,272,472 
Accounts payable    25,272,528    24,817,165 
Taxes payables    758,307    192,478 
Customer deposits    137,985    227,432 
Due to related parties    4,021,636    1,693,315 
Other current liabilities    2,091,507    1,547,390 
Current portion of operating lease liabilities    487,695    472,182 
Total current liabilities   $72,524,516   $66,208,689 
           
Long-term liabilities           
Long term operating lease liabilities    1,684,614    2,176,130 
Other long-term liabilities    1,529,831    1,812,759 
Warrant liability    4,084,605    5,483,379 
Total long-term liabilities   $7,299,050   $9,472,268 
TOTAL LIABILITIES   $79,823,566   $75,680,957 
           
COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES    
-
    
-
 
Shareholders’ equity        
Ordinary shares, no par value, unlimited shares authorized; 13,594,530 and 12,978,504 shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022.
   
-
    
-
 
Additional paid-in capital    30,286,560    30,286,560 
Statutory reserves    3,842,331    3,842,331 
Retained earnings    18,535,133    34,414,249 
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)    (2,583,794)   (2,831,419)
Total shareholders’ equity   $50,080,230   $65,711,721 
Non-controlling interest    573,171    13,722,663 
TOTAL EQUITY   $50,653,401   $79,434,384 
           
TOTAL LIABILITIES AND SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY   $130,476,967   $155,115,341 

 

See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.

 

F-5

 

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME AND COMPREHENSIVE INCOME

FOR THE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2023 AND 2022

(AUDITED, IN U.S. DOLLARS)

 

   For the years ended
December 31,
 
   2023   2022 
Revenues  $90,333,240   $90,830,674 
Cost of goods sold   65,757,237    70,995,940 
Gross profit   24,576,003    19,834,734 
Selling expenses   2,319,835    2,630,226 
General and administrative expenses   6,052,541    5,459,020 
Research and development expenses   5,424,400    5,786,946 
Total operating expenses  $13,796,776   $13,876,192 
INCOME FROM OPERATIONS  $10,779,227   $5,958,542 
Interest income   143,094    56,817 
Interest expense   (250,410)   (402,968)
Loss on disposal of property and equipment   (31,072)   (1,511)
Impairment for investments   (300,000)   
-
 
Change in fair value of the warrant liability   1,398,774    (2,814,012)
Allowance for expected credit loss-related parties receivable   (34,462,992)   
-
 
Remeasurement loss from change in functional currency   (2,490,646)   
-
 
Government subsidies income   692,443    1,029,370 
Other income/(loss)   1,212,354    676,136 
INCOME (LOSS) BEFORE INCOME TAX  $(23,309,228)  $4,502,374 
INCOME TAX   1,708,262    699,691 
NET INCOME (LOSS)  $(25,017,490)  $3,802,683 
LESS: NET INCOME (LOSS) ATTRIBUTABLE TO NONCONTROLLING INTEREST   (9,138,374)   3,057,130 
NET INCOME (LOSS) ATTRIBUTABLE TO GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES  $(15,879,116)  $745,553 
OTHER COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS):   842,646    (5,740,161)
Unrealized foreign currency translation income (loss) attribute to Greenland technologies holding corporation and subsidiaries   247,625    (3,845,818)
Unrealized foreign currency translation income (loss) attribute to non-controlling interest   595,021    (1,894,343)
Total comprehensive loss attributable to Greenland technologies holding corporation and subsidiaries   (15,631,491)   (3,100,265)
Total comprehensive income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interest   (8,543,353)   1,162,787 
WEIGHTED AVERAGE ORDINARY SHARES OUTSTANDING:   13,229,978    11,886,876 
Basic and diluted
   (1.20)   0.06 

 

See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.

 

F-6

 

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF SHARE HOLDERS’ EQUITY

FOR THE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2023 AND 2022

(AUDITED, IN U.S. DOLLARS)

 

   Ordinary Shares   Additional   Accumulated Other           Non-     
   No Par Value   Paid-in   Comprehensive   Statutory   Retained   controlling     
   Shares   Amount   Capital   Income/(loss)   Reserve   Earnings   Interest   Total 
Balance as of December 31, 2021   11,329,530    
-
   $23,759,364   $1,014,399    3,842,331   $33,668,696   $12,559,876   $74,844,666 
Sale of stock and warrants   1,648,974    
-
    6,527,196    
-
    
-
    
-
    
-
    6,527,196 
Net income   -    
-
    
-
    
-
    
-
    745,553    3,057,130    3,802,683 
Foreign currency translation adjustment   -    
-
    
-
    (3,845,818)   
-
    
-
    (1,894,343)   (5,740,161)
Balance as of December 31, 2022   12,978,504    
-
   $30,286,560   $(2,831,419)   3,842,331   $34,414,249   $13,722,663   $79,434,384 
                                         
Cashless exercise of warrants   616,026    
-
    
-
    
-
    
-
    
-
    
-
    
-
 
Cancellation of subsidiary   -    
-
    
-
    
-
    
-
    
-
    (3,902,544)   (3,902,544)
Dividend   -    
-
    
-
    
-
    
-
    
 
    (703,595)   (703,595)
Net income   -    
-
    
-
    
-
    
-
    (15,879,116)   (9,138,374)   (25,017,490)
Foreign currency translation adjustment   -    
-
    
-
    247,625    
-
    
-
    595,021    842,646 
Balance as of December 31, 2023   13,594,530    
-
   $30,286,560   $(2,583,794)   3,842,331   $18,535,133   $573,171   $50,653,401 

 

See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.

 

F-7

 

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

FOR THE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2023 AND 2022

(AUDITED, IN U.S. DOLLARS)

 

   For the years ended
December 31,
 
   2023   2022 
CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES:        
Net income  $(25,017,490)  $3,802,683 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:          
Depreciation and amortization   2,190,737    2,436,114 
Amortization of deferred subsidy   (231,795)   (236,856)
Loss on disposal of property and equipment   31,072    1,511 
Increase in allowance for expected credit losses   127,646    (32,316)
Increase in provision for inventory   271,453    359,534 
Change in fair value of warrant liability   (1,398,774)   2,814,012 
Increase in allowance for expected credit loss-related parties receivable   34,462,992    
-
 
Deferred tax assets   (43,724)   (90,259)
Non-cash lease expenses   668,609    354,377 
Impairment for investments   300,000    
-
 
Loss on disposal of short term investment   25,325    
-
 
Accrued interest income derived from loan to RP   (14,570)   
-
 
Accrued expense   103,150    
-
 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:          
Increase (Decrease) In:          
Accounts receivable   (2,689,614)   406,963 
Notes receivable   794,986    6,074,159 
Inventories   (2,404,558)   400,982 
Advance to suppliers   122,588    (11,187)
Other current and noncurrent assets   (6,335,159)   (7,816,943)
Increase (Decrease) In:          
Accounts payable   1,163,794    (2,080,206)
Customer deposits   (83,204)   (133,803)
Other current liabilities   475,763    2,115,816 
Income tax payables   572,857    94,634 
Due to related parties   
-
    183,066 
Long-term payables - unamortized deferred financing costs   
-
    (186,800)
Lease liabilities   (643,044)   (333,415)
NET CASH PROVIDED BY OPERATING ACTIVITIES  $2,449,040   $8,122,066 

 

See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.

 

F-8

 

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

FOR THE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2023 AND 2022 (Continued)

(AUDITED, IN U.S. DOLLARS)

 

   For the years ended
December 31
 
   2023   2022 
CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES:        
Purchases of Long-term assets  $(735,498)  $(525,128)
Loan lent to third parties   (423,675)   
-
 
Repayment of loans lend to third parties   1,835,925    
-
 
Proceeds from sale of short-term investment   444,155    
-
 
Investment in a joint venture   (50,000)   (250,000)
NET CASH PROVIDED BY (USED IN) INVESTING ACTIVITES  $1,070,907   $(775,128)
           
CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES:          
Proceeds from short-term bank loans  $6,722,309   $11,697,621 
Repayments of short-term bank loans   (12,424,974)   (10,786,753)
Notes payable   9,272,074    (10,847,677)
Proceeds from related parties   
-
    281,406 
Repayment of loans from related parties   
-
    (2,159,416)
Repayment of loans from third parties   
-
    (1,481,087)
Payment of principal on financing lease obligation   
-
    (185,136)
Proceeds from equity and debt financing   
-
    9,196,563 
Dividend paid   (703,595)   
-
 
NET CASH PROVIDED BY (USED IN) FINANCING ACTIVITES  $2,865,814   $(4,284,479)
NET INCREASE IN CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS AND RESTRICTED CASH  $6,385,761   $3,062,459 
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash   2,074,570    (1,134,295)
CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS AND RESTRICTED CASH AT BEGINNING OF YEAR   19,729,056    17,800,892 
CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS AND RESTRICTED CASH AT END OF PERIOD  $28,189,387   $19,729,056 
Bank balances and cash   22,981,324    16,295,695 
Bank balances and cash included in assets classified as restricted cash   5,208,063    3,433,361 
           
Supplemental Disclosure of Cash Flow Information          
Income taxes paid   977,985    695,315 
Interest paid   277,158    405,174 

 

See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.

 

F-9

 

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 1 – ORGANIZATION AND PRINCIPAL ACTIVITIES

 

Greenland Technologies Holding Corporation (the “Company” or “Greenland”) designs, develops, manufactures and sells components and products for the global material handling industries.

 

Through its PRC subsidiaries, Greenland offers transmission products, which are key components for forklift trucks used in manufacturing and logistic applications, such as factories, workshops, warehouses, fulfilment centers, shipyards, and seaports. Forklifts play an important role in the logistic systems of many companies across different industries in China and globally. Generally, industries with the largest demand for forklifts include the transportation, warehousing logistics, electrical machinery, and automobile industries.

 

Greenland’s transmission products are used in 1-ton to 15-tons forklift trucks, some with mechanical shift and some with automatic shift. Greenland sells these transmission products directly to forklift-truck manufacturers. In the fiscal years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, Greenland sold an aggregate of 149,543 and 129,686 sets of transmission products, respectively, to more than 100 forklift manufacturers in the PRC.

 

In January 2020, Greenland launched HEVI Corp. (“HEVI”), formerly known as Greenland Technologies Corp. to focus on the production and sale of electric industrial vehicles to meet the increasing demand for electric industrial vehicles and machinery powered by sustainable energy in order to reduce air pollution and lower carbon emissions. HEVI is a wholly owned subsidiary of Greenland incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware. HEVI’s electric industrial vehicle products currently include GEF-series electric forklifts, a series of lithium powered forklifts with three models ranging in size from 1.8 tons to 3.5 tons, GEL-1800, a 1.8 ton rated load lithium powered electric wheeled front loader, GEX-8000, an all-electric 8.0 ton rated load lithium powered wheeled excavator, and GEL-5000, an all-electric 5.0 ton rated load lithium wheeled front loader. In addition, HEVI introduced a line of mobile DC battery chargers that support DC powered EV applications in the North America market. These products are available for purchase in the United States (“U.S.”) market. In August 2022, Greenland launched a 54,000 square foot industrial electric vehicle assembly site in Baltimore, Maryland to support local services, assembly and distribution of its electric industrial heavy equipment products line.

 

Greenland serves as the parent company of Zhongchai Holding (Hong Kong) Limited, a holding company formed under the laws of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (“Hong Kong”) on April 23, 2009 (“Zhongchai Holding”). Zhongchai Holding’s subsidiaries include Zhejiang Zhongchai Machinery Co. Ltd., an operating company formed under the laws of the People’s Republic of China (the “PRC” or “China”) in 2005, Hangzhou Greenland Energy Technologies Co., Ltd. (“Hangzhou Greenland”), an operating company formed under the laws of the PRC in 2019, and Hengyu Capital Limited, a company formed in Hong Kong on August 16, 2022 (“Hengyu Capital”). Through Zhongchai Holding and its subsidiaries, Greenland develops and manufactures traditional transmission products for material handling machineries in the PRC.

 

Greenland was incorporated on December 28, 2017 as a British Virgin Islands company with limited liability. Following the Business Combination (as described and defined below) in October 2019, the Company changed its name from Greenland Acquisition Corporation to Greenland Technologies Holding Corporation.

 

The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected business and manufacturing activities within China, including travel restrictions, widespread mandatory quarantines, and suspension of business activities within China. For the fiscal years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, we experienced rising material costs due to the pandemic. As of the date of this report, Chinese industries have gradually resumed businesses as the Chinese government lifted its COVID-19 protocols and measures since December 2022. However, we remain cautious and prudent when assessing the future impact of COVID-19 on our business due to the current ongoing global pandemic.

 

F-10

 

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 1 – ORGANIZATION AND PRINCIPAL ACTIVITIES (CONTINUED)

 

The Company’s Shareholders

 

As of December 31, 2023, Cenntro Holding Limited owned 45.69% of Greenland’s outstanding ordinary shares. Cenntro Holding Limited is controlled and beneficially owned by Mr. Peter Zuguang Wang, the chairman of the board of directors of the Company.

 

The Company’s Subsidiaries

 

Zhongchai Holding, the wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, owned 71.576% of Zhejiang Zhongchai Machinery Co., Ltd. (“Zhejiang Zhongchai”), 100% of Hangzhou Greenland Energy Technologies Co., Ltd Co., Ltd (“Hangzhou Greenland”) and 62.5% of Hengyu Capital, Ltd. (“Hengyu Capital”). HEVI (formerly known as Greenland Technologies Corp.) is a wholly owned subsidiary of Greenland.

 

Zhejiang Zhongchai

 

Zhejiang Zhongchai, a limited liability company registered on November 21, 2005, is the direct operating subsidiary of Zhongchai Holding in the PRC. On April 5, 2007, Usunco Automotive Limited (“Usunco”), a British Virgin Islands limited liability company, invested US$8,000,000 for purchasing approximately 75.4717% equity interest of Zhejiang Zhongchai. On December 16, 2009, Usunco agreed to transfer its 75.4717% interest in Zhejiang Zhongchai to Zhongchai Holding. On April 26, 2010, Xinchang County Keyi Machinery Co., Ltd. transferred 24.5283% equity interest it owned in Zhejiang Zhongchai to Zhongchai Holding in exchange for a consideration of US$2.6 million. On November 1, 2017, Xinchang County Jiuxin Investment Management Partnership (LP) (“Jiuxin”), an entity controlled and beneficially owned by Mr. He Mengxing, president of Zhejiang Zhongchai, completed its investment of approximately RMB31,590,000 in Zhejiang Zhongchai for 10.53% of its interest.On December 29, 2021, Xinchang County Jiuhe Investment Management Partnership (LP) (“Jiuhe”), an entity controlled and beneficially owned by Mr. He Mengxing, president of Zhejiang Zhongchai, completed its investment of approximately RMB34,300,000 in Zhejiang Zhongchai for 20.00% of its interest. As of December 31, 2023, Zhongchai Holding owned approximately 71.576% of the equity interests, Jiuxin owned approximately 8.424% of the equity interests, and Jiuhe owned approximately 20.00% of the equity interests in Zhejiang Zhongchai.

 

Through Zhejiang Zhongchai, the Company has been engaging in the manufacturing and sales of transmission systems mainly for forklift trucks since 2006. These forklift trucks are used in manufacturing and logistics applications, such as factory, workshop, warehouse, fulfilment centers, shipyards and seaports. The transmission systems are the key components for forklift trucks. The Company supplies transmission systems to forklift truck manufacturers. Its transmission systems fit for forklift trucks ranging from 1 to 15 tons, with either mechanical shift or automatic shift. All the products are currently manufactured at the Company’s facility in Xinchang, Zhejiang Province, the PRC and are sold to both domestic and oversea markets.

 

Hangzhou Greenland

 

Hangzhou Greenland is a limited liability company registered on August 9, 2019 in Hangzhou Sunking Plaza, Zhejiang, the PRC. Hangzhou Greenland engages in the business of trading construction engineering machinery, electronic components, hardware, and others.

 

F-11

 

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 1 – ORGANIZATION AND PRINCIPAL ACTIVITIES (CONTINUED)

 

HEVI

 

HEVI, formerly known as Greenland Technologies Corp. prior to May 2022, was incorporated on January 14, 2020 under the laws of the State of Delaware. HEVI is a wholly owned subsidiary of Greenland and promotes sales of sustainable alternative products for the heavy industrial equipment industry, including electric industrial vehicles, in the North American market.

 

Hengyu Capital

 

Hengyu Capital is a limited liability company registered on August 16, 2022 in Hong Kong. The main business of Hengyu Capital is to engage in investment management and consulting services.

 

Shanghai Hengyu

 

Shanghai Hengyu is a limited liability company registered on September 10, 2015 in Shanghai Free Trade Zone, Shanghai, the PRC, which dissolved on July 10, 2023.

 

Details of the Company’s subsidiaries, which are included in these consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2023, are as follows:

 

Name   Domicile
and Date of
Incorporation
  Paid-in
Capital
  Percentage
of Effective
Ownership
    Principal Activities
Zhongchai Holding (Hong Kong) Limited   Hong Kong April 23, 2009   HKD 10,000       100 %   Holding
Zhejiang Zhongchai Machinery Co., Ltd.   PRC November 21, 2005   RMB 25,000,000       71.576 %   Manufacture, sale of various transmission boxes
Hangzhou Greenland Energy Technologies Co., Ltd.   PRC August 8, 2020   RMB 7,224,922       100 %   Trading
HEVI Corp.   Delaware January 14, 2020   USD 6,363,557       100 %   U.S. operation and distribution of electric industrial vehicles for North American market
Hengyu Capital, Ltd   Hong Kong August 16, 2022   HKD 10,000       62.5 %   Investment management and consulting services

 

NOTE 2 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

 

Basis of Presentation

 

The accompanying consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) for information pursuant to the rules and regulations of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

F-12

 

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 2 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (CONTINUED)

 

Principles of Consolidation

 

The consolidated financial statements include the financial statements of Greenland Technologies Holding Corporation and its subsidiaries. Intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated upon consolidation. Certain reclassifications to previously reported financial information have been made to conform to the current period presentation.

 

Use of Estimates

 

The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. Management makes these estimates using the best information available at the time the estimates are made. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Significant estimates in the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 include allowance for expected credit losses, reserve for inventories, fair value of warrant liability, useful life of property, plant and equipment, assumptions used in assessing impairment of long-term assets, estimates used in accounting for leases in accordance with FASB ASC 842, Leases and valuation of deferred tax assets and accruals for taxes due.

 

Non-controlling Interest

 

Non-controlling interests in the Company’s subsidiaries are recorded in accordance with the provisions of Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification 810 Consolidation (“ASC 810”) and are reported as a component of equity, separate from the parent’s equity. Purchase or sale of equity interests that do not result in a change of control are accounted for as equity transactions. Results of operations attributable to the non-controlling interest are included in our consolidated results of operations and, upon loss of control, the interest sold, as well as interest retained, if any, will be reported at fair value with any gain or loss recognized in earnings.

 

Foreign Currency Translation

 

Since the Company operates primarily in the PRC, the Company’s functional currency is the Renminbi (“RMB”). The Company’s financial statements have been translated into the reporting currency of the United States Dollar (“USD”). Assets and liabilities of the Company are translated at the exchange rate at each reporting period end date. Equity is translated at the historical exchange rate when the transaction occurs. Income and expense accounts are translated at the average rate of exchange during the reporting period. The resulting translation adjustments are reported under other comprehensive income (loss). Gains and losses resulting from the translation of foreign currency transactions and balances are reflected in the results of operations.

 

The exchange rates used to translate amounts in RMB into USD for the purposes of preparing the audited consolidated financial statements or otherwise disclosed in this report were as follows:

 

   As of 
   December 31,
2023
   December 31,
2022
 
Period end RMB: US$ exchange rate   7.0999    6.8972 

 

   For the years ended
December 31,
 
   2023   2022 
Period average RMB: US$ exchange rate   7.0809    6.7518 

 

F-13

 

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 2 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (CONTINUED)

 

The exchange rates (applicable to Shanghai Hengyu closed on July 10, 2023) used to translate amounts in RMB into USD for the purposes of preparing the audited consolidated financial statements or otherwise disclosed in this report were as follows:

 

   From
January 1,
2023 to
July 10,
2023
  

For the year ended
December 31,
2022

 
Period average RMB: US$ exchange rate   6.9402    6.7518 

 

The RMB is not freely convertible into foreign currency and all foreign exchange transactions must take place through authorized institutions. The PRC government imposes significant exchange restrictions on fund transfers out of the PRC that are not related to business operations.

 

Cash and Cash Equivalents

 

For financial reporting purposes, the Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. The Company maintains its bank accounts with various financial institutions primarily in mainland China and U.S. The Company has not experienced any losses in bank accounts.

 

Restricted Cash

 

Restricted cash represents amounts held by a bank as security for bank acceptance bills, as well as the financial product secured for the short-term bank loan and therefore is not available for the Company’s use until such time as the bank acceptance notes and bank loans have been fulfilled or expired, normally within a twelve-month period.

 

Fair Value of Financial Instruments

 

The Company applies the provisions of ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures, to the financial instruments that are required to be carried at fair value. Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The Company uses a three-tier fair value hierarchy based upon observable and non-observable inputs that prioritizes the information used to develop our assumptions regarding fair value. Fair value measurements are separately disclosed by level within the fair value hierarchy.

 

  Level 1—defined as observable inputs such as quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities;

 

  Level 2—defined as inputs other than quoted prices in active markets, that are either directly or indirectly observable; and

 

  Level 3—defined as unobservable inputs in which little or no market data exists, therefore requiring an entity to develop its own assumptions.

 

The Company’s financial assets and liabilities, which include financial instruments as defined by FASB ASC 820, include cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash, short term investment, accounts receivable, notes receivables, due from related party, fixed deposit, short term bank loans, accounts payable, other payable, notes payable and warrant liability. As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the carrying amounts of cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, accounts receivable, notes receivables, notes payables, and accounts payable are approximation their fair value due to the short-term nature. As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, fixed deposits and bank loans are measured at amortized cost.

 

The following table summarizes the fair value measurements of assets and liabilities that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis at December 31, 2023:

 

(amount in absolute value)  Active Market
for Identical
Assets
(Level 1)
   Observable
Inputs
(Level 2)
   Unobservable
Inputs
(Level 3)
   Total
Carrying
Value
 
Short term investment  $2,818,068    
-
    
         -
   $2,818,068 
Warrants liability   
-
    4,084,605    
-
    4,084,605 
                    
Total  $2,818,068    4,084,605    
-
   $6,902,673 

F-14

 

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 2 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (CONTINUED)

 

Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Expected Credit Losses

 

Accounts receivable are stated at the historical carrying amount net of allowance for expected credit losses.

 

The Company adopted ASU No. 2016-13, “Financial Instruments — Credit Losses (Topic 326), Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments” on January 1, 2023 using a modified retrospective approach. The Company also adopted this guidance to notes receivable and due from related parties.

 

To estimate expected credit losses, the Company has identified the relevant risk characteristics of its customers and the related receivables. The Company considers the past collection experience, current economic conditions, future economic conditions (external data and macroeconomic factors) and changes in the Company’s customer collection trends. The allowance for expected credit losses and corresponding receivables were written off when they are determined to be uncollectible.

 

Inventories

 

Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value, which is based on estimated selling prices less any further costs expected to be incurred for completion and disposal. Cost of raw materials is calculated using the weighted average method and is based on purchase cost. Work-in-progress and finished goods costs are determined using the weighted average method and comprise direct materials, direct labor and an appropriate proportion of overhead.

 

Advance to Suppliers

 

Advance to suppliers represents interest-free cash paid in advance to suppliers for purchases of parts and/or raw materials. The balance of advance to suppliers was $0.29 million and $0.41 million as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.

 

Property, Plant, and Equipment

 

Property, plant, and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation, and include expenditure that substantially increases the useful lives of existing assets. Expenditures for repairs and maintenance, which do not extend the useful life of the assets, are expensed as incurred.

 

Depreciation is provided over their estimated useful lives, using the straight-line method. Estimated useful lives are as follows:

 

Plant, buildings and improvements  20 years
Machinery and equipment  2~10 years
Motor vehicles  4 years
Office equipment  3~5 years
Fixtures and decorations  5 years

 

When assets are sold or retired, their costs and accumulated depreciation are eliminated from the consolidated financial statements and any gain or loss resulting from their disposal is recognized in the period of disposition as an element of other income. The cost of maintenance and repairs is charged to income as incurred, whereas significant renewals and betterments are capitalized.

 

F-15

 

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 2 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (CONTINUED)

 

Land Use Rights

 

According to the PRC laws, the government owns all the land in the PRC. Companies or individuals are authorized to possess and use the land only through land use rights granted by the Chinese government. The land use rights granted to the Company are being amortized using the straight-line method over the lease term of fifty years.

 

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

 

Long-lived assets are evaluated for impairment periodically whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their related carrying amounts may not be recoverable in accordance with FASB ASC 360, “Property, Plant and Equipment”.

 

In evaluating long-lived assets for recoverability, the Company uses its best estimate of future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset and eventual disposition in accordance with FASB ASC 360-10-15. To the extent that estimated future, undiscounted cash inflows attributable to the asset, less estimated future, undiscounted cash outflows, are less than the carrying amount, an impairment loss is recognized in an amount equal to the difference between the carrying value of such asset and its fair value. Assets to be disposed of and for which there is a committed plan of disposal, whether through sale or abandonment, are reported at the lower of carrying value or fair value less costs to sell. There was no impairment loss recognized for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022.

 

Lease

 

ASC 842 supersedes the lease requirements in ASC 840 “Leases,” and generally requires lessees to recognize operating and finance lease liabilities and corresponding right-of-use assets on the balance sheet and to provide enhanced disclosures surrounding the amount, timing and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leasing arrangements. Leases that transfer substantially all of the benefits and risks incidental to the ownership of assets are accounted for as finance leases as if there was an acquisition of an asset and incurrence of an obligation at the inception of the lease. All other leases are accounted for as operating leases.

 

A sale-leaseback transaction occurs when an entity sells an asset it owns and immediately leases the asset back from the buyer. The seller then becomes the lessee and the buyer becomes the lessor. Under ASC 842, both parties must assess whether the buyer-lessor has obtained control of the asset and a sale has occurred.

 

The Company has leased premises for its offices under non-cancellable operating leases since May 2021 and its assembly site under non-cancellable operating leases since June 2022. Operating lease payments are expensed over the term of lease using straight line method. The Company’s office leases have a 3-year term and the lease of its assembly site has a 5.5-year term. Usually within four months prior to the expiration date of a lease, the Company is required to notify the lessor and has a priority to continue renting the lease property if a lessor intends to lease property. The lease itself does not have restrictions or covenants. Any damage, if made by the lessee, to the property and equipment within the property has to been fixed or reimbursed by the lessee. The Company does not have any leases entered into that have not yet commenced. Under the terms of the lease agreements, the Company has no legal or contractual asset retirement obligations at the end of the leases.

 

F-16

 

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 2 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (CONTINUED)

 

Revenue Recognition

 

In accordance with ASC Topic 606, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers,” the Company recognizes revenues when goods or services are transferred to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration which the Company expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. In determining when and how revenues are recognized from contracts with customers, the Company performs the following five-step analysis: (i) identification of contract with customer; (ii) determination of performance obligations; (iii) measurement of the transaction price; (iv) allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations and (v) recognition of revenues when (or as) the Company satisfies each performance obligation. The Company derives revenues from the processing, distribution and sale of its products. The Company recognizes its revenues net of value-added taxes (“VAT”). The Company is subject to VAT which had been levied at the rate of 17% on the invoiced value of sales until April 30, 2018, after which date the rate was reduced to 16%. VAT rate was further reduced to 13% starting from April 1, 2019. Output VAT is borne by customers in addition to the invoiced value of sales and input VAT is borne by the Company in addition to the invoiced value of purchases to the extent not refunded for export sales.

 

Revenues are recognized at a point in time once the Company has determined that the customer has obtained control over the product. Control is typically deemed to have been transferred to the customer when the performance obligation is fulfilled, usually at the time of customers’ acceptance or consumption, at the net sales price (transaction price) and each of the criteria under ASC 606 have been met. Contract terms may require the Company to deliver the finished goods to the customers’ location or the customer may pick up the finished goods at the Company’s factory. International sales are recognized when shipment clears customs and leaves the port. Payments due within two months after customers’ acceptance or consumption.

 

The Company adopted ASC 606 on January 1, 2018, using the transition method of Modified-Retrospective Method (“MRM”). The adoption of ASC 606 had no impact on the Company’s beginning balance of retained earnings.

 

The Company’s contracts are all short-term in nature with a contract term of one year or less. Receivables are recorded when the Company has an unconditional right to consideration.

 

Contracts do not offer any price protection, but allow for the return of certain goods if there is a quality problem, which is standard warranty. The Company’s product returns and recorded reserve for sales returns were minimal for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022. The total sales return amount accounted for around 0.10% and 0.00% of the total revenue for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022.The total warrants expenditures amount accounted for around 0.63% and 1.01% of the total revenue for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022.

 

The following table sets forth disaggregation of revenue:

 

   For the years ended
December 31,
 
   2023   2022 
Major Product        
Transmission boxes for Forklift  $85,925,302   $80,220,000 
Transmission boxes for Non-Forklift (EV, etc.)   4,407,938    10,610,674 
Total  $90,333,240   $90,830,674 

 

F-17

 

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 2 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (CONTINUED)

 

Cost of Goods Sold

 

Cost of goods sold consists primarily of material costs, freight charges, purchasing and receiving costs, inspection costs, internal transfer costs, wages, employee compensation, amortization, depreciation and related costs, which are directly attributable to the production of products. Write-down of inventory to lower of cost or net realizable value is also recorded in cost of goods sold.

 

Selling Expenses 

 

Selling expenses include operating expenses such as payroll and traveling and transportation expenses. 

 

General and Administrative Expenses

 

General and administrative expenses include management and office salaries and employee benefits, depreciation for office facility and office equipment, travel and entertainment, legal and accounting, consulting fees and other office expenses.

 

Research and Development

 

Research and development costs are expensed as incurred and totaled approximately $5.42 million and $5.79 million for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Research and development costs are incurred on a project specific basis.

 

Government Subsidies

 

Government subsidies are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the subsidy will be received and all attaching conditions will be complied with. When the subsidy relates to an expense item, it is recognized as income over the periods necessary to match the subsidy on a systematic basis to the costs that it is intended to compensate. Where the subsidy relates to an asset, it is recognized as other long-term liabilities and is released to the statement of operations over the expected useful life in a consistent manner with the depreciation method for the relevant asset. Total government subsidies were $1.53 million and $1.81 million as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.

 

Income Taxes

 

The Company accounts for income taxes following the liability method pursuant to FASB ASC 740 “Income Taxes”. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the difference between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates that will be in effect in the period in which the differences are expected to reverse. The Company records a valuation allowance to offset deferred tax assets if, based on the weight of available evidence, it is more-likely-than-not that some portion, or all, of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The effect on deferred taxes of a change in tax rate is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.

 

The Company also follows FASB ASC 740, which addresses the determination of whether tax benefits claimed or expected to be claimed on a tax return should be recorded in the financial statements. The Company may recognize the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the financial statements from such a position should be measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than fifty percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. ASC 740 also provides guidance on recognition, classification, interest and penalties on income taxes, accounting in interim periods and requires increased disclosures. As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the Company did not have a liability for unrecognized tax benefits. It is the Company’s policy to include penalties and interest expense related to income taxes as a component of other expense and interest expense, respectively, as necessary. The Company’s historical tax years will remain open for examination by the local authorities until the statute of limitations has passed.

 

F-18

 

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 2 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (CONTINUED)

 

Value-Added Tax

 

Enterprises or individuals, who sell commodities, engage in repair and maintenance or import or export goods in the PRC are subject to a value added tax in accordance with PRC Laws. The VAT standard rate had been 17% of the gross sale price until April 30, 2018, after which date the rate was reduced to 16%. VAT rate was further reduced to 13% starting from April 1, 2019. A credit is available whereby VAT paid on the purchases of semi-finished products or raw materials used in the production of the Company’s finished products can be used to offset the VAT due on the sales of the finished products.

 

Statutory Reserve

 

In accordance with the PRC Regulations on Enterprises with Foreign Investment, an enterprise established in the PRC with foreign investment is required to provide for certain statutory reserves, namely (i) a General Reserve Fund, (ii) an Enterprise Expansion Fund and (iii) a Staff Welfare and Bonus Fund, which are appropriated from net profit as reported in the enterprise’s PRC statutory accounts. A wholly owned foreign enterprise is required to allocate at least 10% of its annual after-tax profit to the General Reserve Fund until the balance of such fund has reached 50% of its respective registered capital. A non-wholly owned foreign invested enterprise is permitted to provide for the above allocation at the discretion of its board of directors. Appropriations to the Enterprise Expansion Fund and Staff Welfare and Bonus Fund are at the discretion of the board of directors for all foreign invested enterprises. The aforementioned reserves can only be used for specific purposes and are not distributable as cash dividends.

 

Comprehensive Income (Loss)

 

Comprehensive income (loss) is defined as the change in equity during the year from transactions and other events, excluding the changes resulting from investments by owners and distributions to owners, and is not included in the computation of income tax expense or benefit. Accumulated comprehensive income consists of foreign currency translation. The Company presents comprehensive income (loss) in accordance with ASC Topic 220, “Comprehensive Income”.

 

Earnings per share

 

The Company calculates earnings per share in accordance with ASC Topic 260 “Earnings per Share.” Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the net income(loss) attributable to GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION, by the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per share is computed similar to basic earnings per share except that the denominator is increased to include the number of additional ordinary shares that would have been outstanding if the potential ordinary shares equivalents had been issued and if the additional ordinary shares were dilutive.

 

Segments and Related Information

 

ASC 280 “Segment reporting” establishes standards for reporting information on operating segments in interim and annual financial statements. All of the Company’s operations are considered by the chief operating decision maker to be aggregated in one reportable operating segment. 

 

The Company is engaged in the business of manufacturing and selling various transmission boxes. The Company’s manufacturing process is essentially the same for the entire Company and is performed in-house at the Company’s facilities in the PRC. The Company’s customers primarily consist of entities in the automotive, construction machinery or warehousing equipment industries. The distribution of the Company’s products is consistent across the entire Company. In addition, the economic characteristics of each customer arrangement are similar in that the Company maintains policies at the corporate level.

 

F-19

 

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 2 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (CONTINUED)

 

Commitments and contingencies

 

In the normal course of business, the Company is subject to contingencies, including legal proceedings and environmental claims arising out of the normal course of businesses that relate to a wide range of matters, including among others, contracts breach liability. The Company records accruals for such contingencies based upon the assessment of the probability of occurrence and, where determinable, an estimate of the liability. Management may consider many factors in making these assessments including past history, scientific evidence and the specifics of each matter. The Company’s management has evaluated all such proceedings and claims that existed as of December 31, 2023 and 2022. Normal course of businesses that relate to a wide range of matters, including among others, contracts breach liability. The Company records accruals for such contingencies based upon the assessment of the probability of occurrence and, where determinable, an estimate of the liability. Management may consider many factors in making these assessments including past history, scientific evidence and the specifics of each matter. The Company’s management has evaluated all such proceedings and claims that existed as of December 31, 2023 and 2022.

 

Related Party

 

In general, related parties exist when there is a relationship that offers the potential for transactions at less than arm’s-length, favorable treatment, or the ability to influence the outcome of events different from that outcome which might result in the absence of that relationship. A related party may be any of the following: a) an affiliate, which is a party that directly or indirectly controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with another party; b) a principle owner, owner of record or known beneficial owner of more than 10% of the voting interest of an entity; c) management, which are persons having responsibility for achieving objectives of the entity and requisite authority to make decision; d) immediate family of management or principal owners; e) a parent company and its subsidiaries; f) other parties that have ability to significant influence the management or operating policies of the entity; and g) other parties that can significantly influence the management or operating policies of the transacting parties or that have an ownership interest in one of the transacting parties and can significantly influence the other to an extent that one or more of the transacting parties might be prevented from fully pursuing its own separate interests. The Company discloses all significant related party transactions.

 

Uncertainty and risks

 

Political, social and economic risks

 

A significant portion of the Company’s operations are conducted in the PRC. Accordingly, the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations may be influenced by the political, economic and legal environment in the PRC, and by the general state of the PRC economy.

 

The Company’s operations in the PRC are subject to special considerations and significant risks not typically associated with companies in North America and Western Europe. These include risks associated with, among others, the political, economic and legal environment and foreign currency exchange. The Company’s results may be adversely affected by changes in the political and social conditions in the PRC, and by changes in governmental policies with respect to laws and regulations, anti-inflationary measures, currency conversion, remittances abroad, and rates and methods of taxation, among other things.

 

Currency Exchange Risk

 

The Company cannot guarantee that the current exchange rate will remain steady. Therefore, there is a possibility that the Company could post the same amount of profit for two comparable periods and yet, because of the fluctuating exchange rate, record higher or lower profit depending on exchange rate of RMB converted to U.S. dollars on the relevant dates. The exchange rate could fluctuate depending on changes in the political and economic environment without notice.

 

F-20

 

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 2 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (CONTINUED)

 

Concentration of Credit Risk

 

Financial instruments that potentially expose the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash in bank and accounts receivable.

 

The Company places its cash with financial institutions with high credit ratings and quality in the PRC and the U.S. Balances at financial institutions and state-owned banks within the PRC are covered by insurance up to RMB500,000 (USD70,000) per bank. As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the Company’s bank account balance in the PRC was $33,033,191 and 11,131,825, respectively, exceeding PRC deposit insurance of RMB500,000 (USD70,000) as of each year end. To date, the Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts.

 

The Company’s bank deposits in the U.S. are insured to the maximum extent permitted by the Deposit Insurance Fund in the U.S. Dodd-Frank permanently increased the maximum amount of deposit insurance to $250,000 per depositor, per insured institution for each account ownership category. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) insurance is backed by the full faith and credit of the United States government. As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the Company’s bank account balance in the United States was $3,797,076 and 7,547,582, respectively, exceeding FDIC insurance of $250.000 as of each year end. To date, the Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts.

 

The Company conducts credit evaluations of customers, and generally does not require collateral or other security from its customers. The Company establishes an allowance for expected credit losses primarily based upon the factors surrounding the credit risk of specific customers..

 

Warrants

 

The Company accounts for warrants as either equity-classified or liability-classified instruments based on an assessment of the warrant’s specific terms and applicable authoritative guidance in the ASC 480, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity (“ASC 480”) and ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging (“ASC 815”). Management’s assessment considers whether the warrants are freestanding financial instruments pursuant to ASC 480, whether they meet the definition of a liability pursuant to ASC 480, and whether the warrants meet all of the requirements for equity classification under ASC 815, including whether the warrants are indexed to the Company’s own ordinary shares and whether the warrant holders could potentially require “net cash settlement” in a circumstance outside of the Company’s control, among other conditions for equity classification. This assessment, which requires the use of professional judgment, is conducted at the time of warrant issuance and as of each subsequent quarterly period-end date while the warrants are outstanding.

 

For issued or modified warrants that meet all of the criteria for equity classification, they are recorded as a component of additional paid-in capital at the time of issuance. For issued or modified warrants that do not meet all the criteria for equity classification, they are recorded as warrant liability at their initial fair value on the date of issuance and subject to remeasurement each balance sheet date with changes in the estimated fair value of the warrants to be recognized as a non-cash gain or loss in the statement of operations.

 

Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements

 

Recent accounting pronouncements that the Company has adopted or may be required to adopt in the future are summarized below:

 

In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Credit Losses, Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. This ASU provides more useful information about expected credit losses to financial statement users and changes how entities will measure credit losses on financial instruments and timing of when such losses should be recognized. This ASU is effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2019 for issuers and December 15, 2020 for non-issuers. Early adoption is permitted for all entities for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods therein. In May 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-05, Financial Instruments — Credit Losses (Topic 326): Targeted Transition Relief. This update adds optional transition relief for entities to elect the fair value option for certain financial assets previously measured at amortized cost basis to increase comparability of similar financial assets. The updates should be applied through a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the first reporting period in which the guidance is effective (that is, a modified retrospective approach). On November 19, 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-10 to amend the effective date for ASU 2016-13 to be fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022 and interim periods therein. The Company adopted this guidance on January 1, 2023, and the adoption did not have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.

 

In March 2023, the FASB issued an ASU to amend certain provisions of ASC 842 that apply to arrangements between related parties under common control. The ASU amends the accounting for the amortization period of leasehold improvements in common-control leases for all entities and requires certain disclosures when the lease term is shorter than the useful life of the asset. This ASU is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. We do not expect the application of this ASU to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements or financial disclosures.

 

Other accounting standards that have been issued by FASB that do not require adoption until a future date are not expected to have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements upon adoption. The Company does not discuss recent pronouncements that are not anticipated to have an impact on, or are unrelated to, its consolidated financial condition, results of operations, cash flows or disclosures.

F-21

 

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 3 – SHORT TERM INVESTMENT

 

As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the Company’s short term investment amounted to $2,818,068 and $7,800,723, respectively. On July 1, 2021, the Company entered into a financial management agreement with Zhejiang Jilin Electronic Technology Co., LTD, pursuant to which Zhejiang Jilin Electronic Technology Co., LTD agreed to make short-term investments with the amount contributed by the Company during the period from July 1, 2021 to June 30, 2023. The Company contributed a total amount of $500,000 under this agreement. On March 27, 2023, the contract was terminated early, and the Company got back a total amount of $444,155. During the year ended December 31, 2023, the Company purchased bank management products in a total amount of $2,824,500 (RMB20,000,000). As of December 31, 2023, the fair value of the Company’s bank management products was $2,818,068(RMB20,008,000).

 

NOTE 4 – CONCENTRATION ON REVENUES AND COST OF GOODS SOLD

 

Concentration of major customers and suppliers:

 

   For the years ended December 31, 
   2023   2022 
Major customers representing more than 10% of the Company’s revenues                
Company A  $13,533,592    14.98%  $15,570,726    17.14%
Company B   10,618,083    11.75%   12,846,382    14.14%
Total Revenue  $24,151,675    26.73%  $28,417,108    31.28%

 

   As of 
   December 31, 2023   December 31, 2022 
Major customers of the Company’s accounts receivable, net                
Company A   2,143,828    12.36%   1,082,818    7.55%
Company B   1,582,994    9.12%   1,375,051    9.59%
Company C   1,415,116    8.16%   1,154,670    8.05%
Company D   1,370,447    7.90%   2,140,591    14.93%
Company E   1,192,684    6.87%   2,266,095    15.81%
Company F   746,874    4.30%   1,430,298    9.98%
Total  $8,451,944    48.71%  $9,449,523    65.91%

 

Accounts receivable from the Company’s major customers accounted for 48.71% and 65.91% of total accounts receivable balances as of December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively.

 

There was no supplier representing more than 10% of the Company’s total purchases for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.

 

NOTE 5 – ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE

 

Accounts receivable is net of allowance for expected credit losses.

 

   As of 
   December 31,
2023
   December 31,
2022
 
Accounts receivable  $17,351,398   $15,100,085 
Less: allowance for expected credit losses   (867,865)   (762,325)
Accounts receivable, net  $16,483,533   $14,337,760 

 

F-22

 

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 5 – ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE (CONTINUED)

 

Changes in the allowance for expected credit losses are as follows:

 

   As of 
  

December 31,

2023

  

December 31,

2022

 
Beginning balance  $762,325   $859,319 
Additional provision charged to expense   127,646    (32,316)
Effect of FX change   (22,106)   (64,678)
Ending balance  $867,865   $762,325 

 

NOTE 6 – INVENTORIES

 

As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, inventories consisted of the following

 

    As of  
    December 31,
2023
    December 31,
2022
 
Raw materials   $ 9,337,110     $ 7,975,097  
Revolving material     1,143,558       1,122,313  
Consigned processing material     60,754       15,056  
Work-in-progress     2,501,368       2,255,453  
Finished goods     12,192,937       12,104,309  
Less: inventory impairment     (638,932 )     (375,846 )
Inventories, net   $ 24,596,795     $ 23,096,382  

 

Changes in the inventory reserves are as follows:

 

    As of  
    December 31,
2023
    December 31,
2022
 
Beginning balance   $ 375,846     $ 23,793  
(Release of) inventory write-downs     271,233       359,534  
Effect of FX change     (8,147 )     (7,481 )
Ending balance   $ 638,932     $ 375,846  

 

NOTE 7 – NOTES RECEIVABLE

 

    As of  
    December 31,
2023
    December 31,
2022
 
Bank notes receivable:   $ 27,135,249     $ 26,713,919  
Commercial notes receivable    
-
      2,034,960  
Total   $ 27,135,249     $ 28,748,879  

 

Bank notes and commercial notes are means of payment from customers for the purchase of the Company’s products and are issued by financial institutions or business entities, respectively, that entitle the Company to receive the full nominal amount from the issuers at maturity, which bear no interest and generally range from three to six months from the date of issuance. As of December 31, 2023, the Company pledged notes receivable for an aggregate amount of $21.85 million to Bank of Hangzhou as a means of security for issuance of bank acceptance notes in an aggregate amount of $19.35 million. As of December 31, 2022, the Company pledged notes receivable for an aggregate amount of $15.51 million to Bank of Communications as a means of security for issuance of bank acceptance notes in an aggregate amount of $13.27 million. The Company expects to collect notes receivable within 6 months after the issuance date of bank acceptance notes.

 

Due to the short term, high-quality credit rating of these commercial banks and no losses have occurred in history, for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, the Company had no allowance for expected credit losses for notes receivable.

 

F-23

 

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 8 – PROPERTY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT 

 

(a) As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, property, plant and equipment consisted of the following:

 

    As of  
    December 31,
2023
    December 31,
2022
 
Buildings   $ 11,444,906     $ 11,781,256  
Machinery     20,974,546       21,010,613  
Motor vehicles     336,541       315,708  
Electronic equipment     246,207       223,806  
Fixed assets decoration*    
-
     
-
 
Total property plant and equipment, at cost     33,002,200       33,331,383  
                 
Less: accumulated depreciation     (19,325,844 )     (17,763,247 )
Property, plant and equipment, net   $ 13,676,356     $ 15,568,136  
Construction in process     22,641       17,078  
Total   $ 13,698,997     $ 15,585,214  

 

For the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, depreciation expense amounted to $2.03 million and $2.44 million, respectively, of which $1.18 million and $1.47 million, respectively, was included in cost of revenue and inventories, and the remainder was included in general and administrative expense, respectively.

 

The Company has not acquired any property and equipment under capital leases.

 

For the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, $0 million and $0.38 million of construction in progress were converted into fixed assets.

 

Restricted assets consist of the following:

 

    As of  
    December 31,
2023
    December 31,
2022
 
Buildings, net   $ 2,024,994     $ 9,599,313  
Machinery, net    
-
     
-
 
Total     2,024,994       9,599,313  

  

As of December 31, 2023, the Company pledged its ownership interests in certain buildings for book value of RMB14.38 million ($2.02 million) as security with Communications Bank of PRC for its loan facility with maximum exposure of RMB60.01 million.

 

NOTE 9 – LAND USE RIGHTS

 

Land use rights consisted of the following:

 

    As of  
    December 31,
2023
    December 31,
2022
 
Land use rights, cost   $ 4,333,386     $ 4,460,738  
Less: Accumulated amortization     (884,881 )     (821,671 )
Land use rights, net   $ 3,448,505     $ 3,639,067  

 

As of December 31, 2023, the Company had land use rights with net book value of $3.45 million, and land use rights with net book value of $1.14 million were pledged as collateral for the Company’s short-term bank loans. As of December 31, 2022, the Company had land use rights with net book value of $3.64 million, which were pledged as collateral for the Company’s short-term bank loans.

 

Estimated future amortization expense is as follows as of December 31, 2023:

 

Years ending December 31,   Amortization
expense
 
2024   $ 86,900  
2025     86,900  
2026     86,900  
2027     86,900  
2028     86,900  
Thereafter     3,014,005  
Total   $ 3,448,505  

F-24

 

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 10 – FIXED DEPOSIT

 

As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, fixed deposit consisted of the following:

 

   As of 
   December 31,
2023
   December 31,
2022
 
Three-year bank deposit  $9,916,308   $- 
Total  $9,916,308   $              - 

 

All fixed deposit were deposited in local banks in the PRC and the deposit term is three years

 

NOTE 11 – NOTES PAYABLE

 

    As of  
    December 31,
2023
    December 31,
2022
 
Bank acceptance notes   $ 36,712,562     $ 28,272,472  
Total   $ 36,712,562     $ 28,272,472  

 

The interest-free notes payable, ranging from six months to one year from the date of issuance, were secured by $5.21 million and $3.43 million restricted cash, $21.85 million and $15.51 million notes receivable, as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.

 

All the notes payable are subject to bank charges of 0.05% of the principal amount as commission, included in the financial expenses in the statement of operations, on each loan transaction. The interest charge of notes payable is free.

 

NOTE 12 – ACCOUNTS PAYABLE

 

Accounts payable are summarized as follow:

 

    As of  
    December 31,
2023
    December 31,
2022
 
Procurement of Materials   $ 25,011,515     $ 24,541,774  
Infrastructure& Equipment     43,530       207,587  
Freight fee     217,483       67,804  
Total   $ 25,272,528     $ 24,817,165  

 

NOTE 13 – SHORT TERM BANK LOANS

 

Short-term loans are summarized as follow:

 

    As of  
    December 31,
2023
    December 31,
2022
 
Collateralized bank loans   $ 2,760,602     $ 7,536,392  
Unsecured bank loans     281,694       1,449,863  
Total   $ 3,042,296     $ 8,986,255  

 

Short-term loans as of December 31, 2023 are as follow:

 

Maturity Date  Type  Bank Name  Interest
Rate per
Annum (%)
   December 31,
2023
 
July 22, 2024  Operating Loans  Bank of Zheshang   3.60   $1,352,132 
July 25, 2024  Operating Loans  Bank of Hangzhou   3.55    1,408,470 
February 22, 2024  Operating Loans  Industrial and Commercial Bank of Xinchang   3.45   $281,694 
Total
             $3,042,296 

 

F-25

 

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 13 – SHORT TERM BANK LOANS (CONTINUED)

 

Short-term loans as of December 31, 2022 are as follow:

 

Maturity Date   Type   Bank Name   Interest
Rate per
Annum (%)
    December 31,
2022
 
August 29, 2023   Operating Loans   Agricultural Bank of PRC     3.85     $ 2,609,755  
June 29, 2023   Operating Loans   Bank of Communications     3.85     $ 1,449,864  
January 30, 2023   Operating Loans   Bank of Ningbo     1.12     $ 1,012,005  
August 23, 2023   Operating Loans   Rural Commercial Bank of Xinchang     3.85     $ 2,464,768  
February 23, 2023   Operating Loans   Industrial and Commercial Bank of Xinchang     4.05     $ 1,449,863  
Total
                  $ 8,986,255  

 

All short-term bank loans were obtained from local banks in the PRC and are repayable within one year.

  

The average annual interest rate of the short-term bank loans was 3.56% and 4.10% for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. The Company was in compliance with its financial covenants as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.

 

As of December 31, 2023, the Company pledged a patent as security with Bank of Hangzhou, for its loan facility with maximum exposure of RMB10.00 million and a patent as security with Bank of Zheshang, for its loan facility with maximum exposure of RMB50.00 million.

 

NOTE 14 – OTHER CURRENT LIABILITIES

 

Other current liabilities are summarized as follow:

 

    As of  
    December 31,
2023
    December 31,
2022
 
Employee payables     807,615       747,923  
Other tax payables     507,464       141,772  
Other payable     115,443       88,403  
Accrued expenses     660,985       569,292  
Total   $ 2,091,507     $ 1,547,390  

 

NOTE 15 – OTHER LONG-TERM LIABILITIES

 

Other long-term liabilities are summarized as follow:

 

    As of  
    December 31,
2023
    December 31,
2022
 
Subsidy     1,529,831       1,812,759  
Total   $ 1,529,831     $ 1,812,759  

 

Subsidy mainly consists of an incentive granted by the Chinese government to encourage transformation of fixed assets in China and other miscellaneous subsidy from the Chinese government. As of December 31, 2023, grant income decreased by $0.28 million, as compared to December 31, 2022. The change was mainly due to timing of incurring qualifying expenses.

 

NOTE 16 – LEASES

 

The Company leases its corporate offices and assembly site under operating leases, with initial terms of 3 years and 5.58 years, respectively. Usually within four months prior to the expiration date of a lease, the Company is required to notify the lessor and has a priority to continue renting the lease property if a lessor intends to lease property. The lease itself does not have restrictions or covenants. Any damage, if made by the lessee, to the property and equipment within the property has to been fixed or reimbursed by the lessee.

 

F-26

 

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 16 – LEASES (CONTINUED)

 

Supplemental balance sheet information related to leases as of December 31, 2023 and 2022 is as follows:

 

   As of 
   December 31,
2023
   December 31,
2022
 
Assets:        
Operating lease right-of-use assets  $2,125,542   $2,627,110 
Liabilities:          
Current portion of operating lease liabilities  $487,695   $