UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D. C. 20549

 

FORM 10-Q

 

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2024

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15 (d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the transition period from __________ to __________

 

Commission File number 001-38605

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION

(Exact name of registrant as specified in charter)

 

British Virgin Islands   001-38605
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  (I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

 

50 Millstone Road, Building 400 Suite 130
East Windsor, NJ
United States
  08512
(Address of principal executive offices)   (Zip Code)

 

1 (888) 827-4832

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class   Trading Symbol(s)   Name of each exchange on which registered
Ordinary shares, no par value   GTEC    The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer Smaller reporting company
    Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No

 

APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PRECEDING FIVE YEARS:

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court. Yes ☐ No ☐

 

As of May 15, 2024, there were 13,594,530 ordinary shares of the registrant outstanding.

 

 

 

 

 

 

INDEX

 

    Page
    Number
     
PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION 1
     
ITEM 1. Financial Statements (unaudited) 1
     
ITEM 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations 2
     
ITEM 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk 13
     
ITEM 4. Controls and Procedures 13
     
PART II. OTHER INFORMATION 15
     
ITEM 1. Legal Proceedings 15
   
ITEM 1A. Risk Factors 15
     
ITEM 2. Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds 36
     
ITEM 3. Defaults Upon Senior Securities 36
     
ITEM 4. Mine Safety Disclosures 36
     
ITEM 5. Other Information 36
     
ITEM 6. Exhibits

37 

     
Signatures   38

 

i

 

 

FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, Financial Statements and Notes to Financial Statements contain forward-looking statements that discuss, among other things, future expectations and projections regarding future developments, operations and financial conditions. Forward-looking statements may appear throughout this report and other documents we file with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), including without limitation, the following sections: Part I, Item 2, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.

 

Forward-looking statements generally can be identified by words such as “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “plans,” “predicts,” “projects,” “will be,” “will continue,” “may,” “could,” “will likely result,” and similar expressions. These forward-looking statements are based on current expectations and assumptions that are subject to risks and uncertainties, which could cause our actual results to differ materially from those reflected in the forward-looking statements. In addition, there is uncertainty about the future development of the COVID-19 pandemic and the impact it may have on the Company’s operations, the demand for the Company’s products or services, global supply chains and economic activity in general. We undertake no obligation to revise or publicly release the results of any revision to these forward-looking statements, except as required by law. Given these risks and uncertainties, readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements.

 

ii

 

  

PART I - FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

ITEM 1. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION

UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

THREE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31, 2024

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

PAGE   F-1-F-2   CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS AS OF MARCH 31, 2024 (UNAUDITED) AND DECEMBER 31, 2023
         
PAGE   F-3   CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS AND COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS) FOR THE THREE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31, 2024 AND 2023 (UNAUDITED)
         
PAGE   F-4   CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY FOR THE THREE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31, 2024 AND 2023 (UNAUDITED)
         
PAGE   F-5-F-6   CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS FOR THE THREE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31, 2024 AND 2023 (UNAUDITED)
         
PAGE   F-7-F-31   NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED)

 

1

 

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

 

AS OF MARCH 31, 2024 AND DECEMBER 31, 2023

 

(IN U.S. DOLLARS)

 

   March 31,   December 31, 
   2024   2023 
ASSETS        
Current assets        
Cash and cash equivalents  $15,985,073   $22,981,324 
Restricted cash   3,850,217    5,208,063 
Short Term Investment   2,794,690    2,818,068 
Notes receivable   32,125,580    27,135,249 
Accounts receivable, net   21,159,628    16,483,533 
Inventories, net   24,746,244    24,596,795 
Due from related parties-current, net   228,311    225,927 
Advance to suppliers   606,469    288,578 
Prepayments and other current assets   1,878,130    53,204 
Total Current Assets  $103,374,342   $99,790,741 
           
Non-current asset          
Property, plant, equipment and construction in progress, net   14,110,492    13,698,997 
Land use rights, net   3,369,694    3,448,505 
Other intangible assets   162,579    189,620 
Deferred tax assets   437,459    256,556 
Right-of-use assets   1,996,392    2,125,542 
Fixed deposit   15,395,169    9,916,308 
Other non-current assets   335,304    1,050,698 
Total non-current assets  $35,807,089   $30,686,226 
TOTAL ASSETS  $139,181,431   $130,476,967 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the unaudited consolidated financial statements.

 

F-1

 

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

 

AS OF MARCH 31, 2024 AND DECEMBER 31, 2023 (Continued)

 

(IN U.S. DOLLARS)

 

   March 31,   December 31, 
   2024   2023 
         
Current Liabilities        
Short-term bank loans  $8,254,505   $3,042,296 
Notes payable-bank acceptance notes   33,167,150    36,712,562 
Accounts payable   30,845,465    25,272,528 
Taxes payables   745,662    758,307 
Customer deposits   339,838    137,985 
Due to related parties   4,021,592    4,021,636 
Other current liabilities   1,947,696    2,091,507 
Lease liabilities   488,568    487,695 
Total current liabilities  $79,810,476   $72,524,516 
           
Non-current liabilities          
Lease liabilities   1,560,279    1,684,614 
Deferred revenue   1,447,490    1,529,831 
Warrant liability   3,049,299    4,084,605 
Total non-current liabilities  $6,057,068   $7,299,050 
TOTAL LIABILITIES  $85,867,544   $79,823,566 
           
COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES   
-
    
-
 
Shareholders’ equity          
Ordinary shares, no par value, unlimited shares authorized; 13,594,530 and 13,594,530 shares issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023.
   
-
    
-
 
Additional paid-in capital   30,286,560    30,286,560 
Statutory reserves   3,842,331    3,842,331 
Retained earnings   21,037,336    18,535,133 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss   (3,237,602)   (2,583,794)
Total shareholders’ equity  $51,928,625   $50,080,230 
Non-controlling interest   1,385,262    573,171 
TOTAL EQUITY  $53,313,887   $50,653,401 
           
TOTAL LIABILITIES AND SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY  $139,181,431   $130,476,967 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the unaudited consolidated financial statements.

 

F-2

 

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS AND COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)

 

FOR THE THREE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31, 2024 AND 2023

 

(UNAUDITED, IN U.S. DOLLARS)

 

  

For the

three months ended

March 31,

 
   2024   2023 
Revenues  $22,723,591   $22,149,360 
Cost of goods sold   17,076,522    16,625,930 
Gross profit   5,647,069    5,523,430 
Selling expenses   549,496    387,485 
General and administrative expenses   2,183,429    1,641,904 
Research and development expenses   987,724    1,119,891 
Total operating expenses  $3,720,649   $3,149,280 
INCOME FROM OPERATIONS  $1,926,420   $2,374,150 
Interest income   169,213    30,393 
Interest expense   (43,840)   (66,493)
Change in fair value of the warrant liability   1,035,306    
-
 
Other income   296,148    417,382 
INCOME BEFORE INCOME TAX  $3,383,247   $2,755,432 
INCOME TAX BENEFIT (EXPENSE)   (186,001)   296,858 
NET INCOME  $3,569,248   $2,458,574 
LESS: NET INCOME ATTRIBUTABLE TO NONCONTROLLING INTEREST   1,067,045    1,011,599 
NET INCOME ATTRIBUTABLE TO GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES  $2,502,203   $1,446,975 
OTHER COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS):   (908,762)   317,332 
Unrealized foreign currency translation income (loss) attributable to Greenland Technologies Holding Corporation and subsidiaries   (653,808)   212,352 
Unrealized foreign currency translation income (loss) attributable to non-controlling interest   (254,954)   104,980 
Total comprehensive income attributable to Greenland technologies holding corporation and subsidiaries   1,848,395    1,659,327 
Total comprehensive income attributable to noncontrolling interest   812,091    1,116,579 
WEIGHTED AVERAGE ORDINARY SHARES OUTSTANDING:   13,594,530    12,978,504 
Basic and diluted
   0.18    0.11 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the unaudited consolidated financial statements.

 

F-3

 

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY

 

FOR THE THREE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31, 2024 AND 2023

 

(UNAUDITED, IN U.S. DOLLARS, EXCEPT FOR SHARE DATA)

 

   Ordinary Shares   Additional  

Accumulated

Other

           Non-     
   No Par Value   Paid-in   Comprehensive   Statutory   Retained   controlling     
   Shares   Amount   Capital   Income/(loss)   Reserve   Earnings   Interest   Total 
Balance as of December 31, 2022   12,978,504    
       -
   $32,955,927   $(2,831,419)   3,842,331   $37,228,261   $13,722,663   $84,917,763 
Net income   -    
-
    
-
    
-
    
-
    1,446,975    1,011,599    2,458,574 
Foreign currency translation adjustment   -    
-
    
-
    212,352    
-
    
-
    104,980    317,332 
Balance as of March 31, 2023   12,978,504    
-
   $32,955,927   $(2,619,067)   3,842,331   $38,675,236   $14,839,242   $87,693,669 
                                         
Balance as of December 31, 2023   13,594,530    
-
   $30,286,560   $(2,583,794)   3,842,331   $18,535,133   $573,171   $50,653,401 
Net income   -    
-
    
-
    
-
    
-
    2,502,203    1,067,045    3,569,248 
Foreign currency translation adjustment   -    
-
    
-
    (653,808)   
-
    
-
    (254,954)   (908,762)
Balance as of March 31, 2024   13,594,530    
-
   $30,286,560   $(3,237,602)   3,842,331   $21,037,336   $1,385,262   $53,313,887 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the unaudited consolidated financial statements.

 

F-4

 

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

 

FOR THE THREE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31, 2024 AND 2023

 

(UNAUDITED, IN U.S. DOLLARS)

 

  

For the

three months ended

March 31,

 
   2024   2023 
CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES:        
Net income  $3,569,248   $2,458,574 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:          
Depreciation and amortization   589,841    542,713 
Amortization of deferred subsidy   (57,081)   
-
 
Increase in allowance for credit losses   570,841    240,845 
Increase(Decrease) in provision for inventory   (120,540)   59,521 
Change in fair value of warrant liability   (1,035,306)   
-
 
Deferred tax assets   (186,001)   (51,647)
Non-cash lease expenses   158,643    
-
 
Accrued interest income derived from loan to RP   (2,385)   
-
 
Accrued expense   789,706    
-
 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:          
Decrease (Increase) In:          
Accounts receivable   (5,543,704)   (5,243,127)
Notes receivable   (5,466,894)   (107,492)
Inventories   (414,082)   636,181 
Advance to suppliers   (320,644)   (212,885)
Other current and noncurrent assets   (6,121,868)   2,874,700 
Increase (Decrease) In:          
Accounts payable   6,020,879    3,510,741 
Customer deposits   205,041    (32,504)
Other current liabilities   (905,069)   (574,123)
Income tax payable   
-
    (34,633)
Due to related parties   
-
    (8,611)
Lease liabilities   (152,955)   
-
 
Other non-current liabilities   
-
    (301,935)
NET CASH (USED IN) PROVIDED BY OPERATING ACTIVITIES  $(8,422,330)  $3,756,318 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the unaudited consolidated financial statements.

 

F-5

 

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

 

FOR THE THREE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31, 2024 AND 2023 (Continued)

 

(UNAUDITED, IN U.S. DOLLARS)

 

  

For the

three months ended

March 31,

 
   2024   2023 
CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES:        
Purchases of long-term assets  $(1,185,032)  $(16,929)
Loan lent to third parties   (695,555)   
-
 
Proceeds from government grants for construction   
-
    262,145 
Investment in a joint venture   
-
    (50,000)
NET CASH (USED IN) PROVIDED BY INVESTING ACTIVITIES  $(1,880,587)  $195,216 
           
CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES:          
Proceeds from short-term bank loans  $5,564,443   $1,169,197 
Repayments of short-term bank loans   (278,222)   (2,481,621)
Notes payable   (2,946,199)   (3,175,115)
Proceeds from third parties   
-
    1,461,497 
Repayment of loans from third parties   
-
    (438,449)
NET CASH PROVIDED BY (USED IN) FINANCING ACTIVITIES  $2,340,022   $(3,464,491)
NET (DECREASE) INCREASE IN CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS AND RESTRICTED CASH  $(7,962,895)  $487,043 
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash   (391,202)   44,518 
CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS AND RESTRICTED CASH AT BEGINNING OF YEAR   28,189,387    19,729,056 
CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS AND RESTRICTED CASH AT END OF PERIOD  $19,835,290   $20,260,617 
Bank balances and cash   15,985,073    15,401,387 
Bank balances and cash included in assets classified as restricted cash   3,850,217    4,859,230 
           
Supplemental Disclosure of Cash Flow Information          
Income taxes paid   181,149    
-
 
Interest paid   27,858    77,073 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the unaudited consolidated financial statements.

  

F-6

 

  

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 1 – ORGANIZATION AND PRINCIPAL ACTIVITIES

 

Greenland Technologies Holding Corporation (the “Company” or “Greenland”) designs, develops, manufactures and sells components and products for the global material handling industries.

 

Through its PRC subsidiaries, Greenland offers transmission products, which are key components for forklift trucks used in manufacturing and logistic applications, such as factories, workshops, warehouses, fulfilment centers, shipyards, and seaports. Forklifts play an important role in the logistic systems of many companies across different industries in China and globally. Generally, industries with the largest demand for forklifts include the transportation, warehousing logistics, electrical machinery, and automobile industries.

 

Greenland’s transmission products are used in 1-ton to 15-tons forklift trucks, some with mechanical shift and some with automatic shift. Greenland sells these transmission products directly to forklift-truck manufacturers. In the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, Greenland sold an aggregate of 41,866 and 36,841 sets of transmission products, respectively, to more than 100 forklift manufacturers in the PRC.

 

In January 2020, Greenland launched HEVI Corp. (“HEVI”), formerly known as Greenland Technologies Corp. to focus on the production and sale of electric industrial vehicles to meet the increasing demand for electric industrial vehicles and machinery powered by sustainable energy in order to reduce air pollution and lower carbon emissions. HEVI is a wholly owned subsidiary of Greenland incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware. HEVI’s electric industrial vehicle products currently include GEF-series electric forklifts, a series of lithium powered forklifts with three models ranging in size from 1.8 tons to 3.5 tons, GEL-1800, a 1.8 ton rated load lithium powered electric wheeled front loader, GEX-8000, an all-electric 8.0 ton rated load lithium powered wheeled excavator, and GEL-5000, an all-electric 5.0 ton rated load lithium wheeled front loader. In addition, HEVI introduced a line of mobile DC battery chargers that support DC powered EV applications in the North America market. These products are available for purchase in the United States (“U.S.”) market. In August 2022, Greenland launched a 54,000 square foot industrial electric vehicle assembly site in Baltimore, Maryland to support local services, assembly and distribution of its electric industrial heavy equipment products line.

 

Greenland serves as the parent company of Zhongchai Holding (Hong Kong) Limited, a holding company formed under the laws of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (“Hong Kong”) on April 23, 2009 (“Zhongchai Holding”). Zhongchai Holding’s subsidiaries include Zhejiang Zhongchai Machinery Co. Ltd., an operating company formed under the laws of the People’s Republic of China (the “PRC” or “China”) in 2005, Hangzhou Greenland Energy Technologies Co., Ltd. (“Hangzhou Greenland”), an operating company formed under the laws of the PRC in 2019, and Hengyu Capital Limited, a company formed in Hong Kong on August 16, 2022 (“Hengyu Capital”). Through Zhongchai Holding and its subsidiaries, Greenland develops and manufactures traditional transmission products for material handling machineries in the PRC.

 

Greenland was incorporated on December 28, 2017 as a British Virgin Islands company with limited liability. Following the Business Combination (as described and defined below) in October 2019, the Company changed its name from Greenland Acquisition Corporation to Greenland Technologies Holding Corporation.

 

The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected business and manufacturing activities within China, including travel restrictions, widespread mandatory quarantines, and suspension of business activities within China. Chinese industries have gradually resumed businesses since the Chinese government lifted its COVID-19 protocols and measures in December 2022. Currently, the COVID-19 pandemic has no significant impact on our operations.

 

The Company’s Shareholders

 

As of March 31, 2024, Cenntro Holding Limited owned 45.69% of Greenland’s outstanding ordinary shares. Cenntro Holding Limited is controlled and beneficially owned by Mr. Peter Zuguang Wang, the chairman of the board of directors of the Company.

 

The Company’s Subsidiaries

 

Zhongchai Holding, an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, owns 71.576% of the equity interests in Zhejiang Zhongchai Machinery Co., Ltd. (“Zhejiang Zhongchai”), 100% of the equity interests in Hangzhou Greenland Energy Technologies Co., Ltd Co., Ltd (“Hangzhou Greenland”), and 62.5% of the equity interests in Hengyu Capital, Ltd. (“Hengyu Capital”). HEVI (formerly known as Greenland Technologies Corp.) is a wholly owned subsidiary of Greenland and Greenland Holding Enterprises Inc. is a wholly owned subsidiary of Greenland.

 

F-7

 

  

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 1 – ORGANIZATION AND PRINCIPAL ACTIVITIES (CONTINUED)

 

Zhejiang Zhongchai

 

Zhejiang Zhongchai, a limited liability company registered on November 21, 2005, is the direct operating subsidiary of Zhongchai Holding in the PRC. On April 5, 2007, Usunco Automotive Limited (“Usunco”), a British Virgin Islands limited liability company, invested US$8,000,000 for purchasing approximately a 75.4717% equity interest of Zhejiang Zhongchai. On December 16, 2009, Usunco agreed to transfer its 75.4717% interest in Zhejiang Zhongchai to Zhongchai Holding. On April 26, 2010, Xinchang County Keyi Machinery Co., Ltd. transferred 24.5283% equity interest it owned in Zhejiang Zhongchai to Zhongchai Holding in exchange for a consideration of US$2.6 million. On November 1, 2017, Xinchang County Jiuxin Investment Management Partnership (LP) (“Jiuxin”), an entity controlled and beneficially owned by Mr. He Mengxing, president of Zhejiang Zhongchai, completed its investment of approximately RMB31,590,000 in Zhejiang Zhongchai for a 10.53% equity interest. On December 29, 2021, Xinchang County Jiuhe Investment Management Partnership (LP) (“Jiuhe”), an entity controlled and beneficially owned by Mr. He Mengxing, president of Zhejiang Zhongchai, completed its investment of approximately RMB34,300,000 in Zhejiang Zhongchai for a 20.00% equity interest. As of March 31, 2024, Zhongchai Holding owned approximately 71.576% of the equity interests, Jiuxin owned approximately 8.424% of the equity interests, and Jiuhe owned approximately 20.00% of the equity interests in Zhejiang Zhongchai.

 

Through Zhejiang Zhongchai, the Company has been engaging in the manufacturing and sales of transmission systems mainly for forklift trucks since 2006. These forklift trucks are used in manufacturing and logistics applications, such as factory, workshop, warehouse, fulfilment centers, shipyards and seaports. The transmission systems are the key components for forklift trucks. The Company supplies transmission systems to forklift truck manufacturers. Its transmission systems fit for forklift trucks ranging from 1 to 15 tons, with either mechanical shift or automatic shift. All the products are currently manufactured at the Company’s facility in Xinchang, Zhejiang Province, the PRC and are sold to both domestic and oversea markets.

 

Hangzhou Greenland

 

Hangzhou Greenland is a limited liability company registered on August 9, 2019 in Hangzhou Sunking Plaza, Zhejiang, the PRC. Hangzhou Greenland engages in the business of trading construction engineering machinery, electronic components, hardware, and others.

 

HEVI

 

HEVI, formerly known as Greenland Technologies Corp. prior to May 2022, was incorporated on January 14, 2020 under the laws of the State of Delaware. HEVI is a wholly owned subsidiary of Greenland and promotes sales of sustainable alternative products for the heavy industrial equipment industry, including electric industrial vehicles, in the North American market.

 

Hengyu Capital

 

Hengyu Capital is a limited liability company registered on August 16, 2022 in Hong Kong. The main business of Hengyu Capital is to engage in investment management and consulting services.

 

Greenland Holding Enterprises Inc.

 

Greenland Holding Enterprises Inc. is a holding company registered on August 28, 2023 in the State of Delaware with no operations.

 

Details of the Company’s subsidiaries, which are included in these unaudited consolidated financial statements as of March 31,2024, are as follows:

 

Name   Domicile
and Date of Incorporation
  Paid-in
Capital
  Ownership
Percentage
    Principal Activities
Zhongchai Holding (Hong Kong) Limited   Hong Kong
April 23, 2009
  HKD 10,000       100 %   Holding
Zhejiang Zhongchai Machinery Co., Ltd.   PRC
November 21, 2005
  RMB 25,000,000       71.576 %   Manufacture, sale of various transmission boxes
Hangzhou Greenland Energy Technologies Co., Ltd.   PRC
August 8, 2020
  RMB 7,224,922       100 %   Trading
HEVI Corp.   Delaware
January 14, 2020
  USD 6,363,557       100 %   U.S. operation and distribution of electric industrial vehicles for North American market
Hengyu Capital, Ltd   Hong Kong
August 16, 2022
  HKD 10,000       62.5 %   Investment management and consulting services
Greenland Holding Enterprises Inc.   Delaware
August 28, 2023
  USD 1       100 %   Holding

 

F-8

 

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 2 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

 

Basis of Presentation

 

The accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) for information pursuant to the rules and regulations of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

Principles of Consolidation

 

The unaudited consolidated financial statements include the financial statements of Greenland Technologies Holding Corporation and its subsidiaries. Intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated upon consolidation. Certain reclassifications to previously reported financial information have been made to conform to the current period presentation.

 

Use of Estimates

 

The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. Management makes these estimates using the best information available at the time the estimates are made. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Significant estimates in the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 include allowance for expected credit losses, reserve for inventories, fair value of warrant liability, useful life of property, plant and equipment, assumptions used in assessing impairment of long-term assets, estimates used in accounting for leases in accordance with FASB ASC 842, Leases and valuation of deferred tax assets and accruals for taxes due.

 

Non-controlling Interest

 

Non-controlling interests in the Company’s subsidiaries are recorded in accordance with the provisions of Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification 810 Consolidation (“ASC 810”) and are reported as a component of equity, separate from the parent’s equity. Purchase or sale of equity interests that do not result in a change of control are accounted for as equity transactions. Results of operations attributable to the non-controlling interest are included in our consolidated results of operations and, upon loss of control, the interest sold, as well as interest retained, if any, will be reported at fair value with any gain or loss recognized in earnings.

 

F-9

 

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 2 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (CONTINUED)

 

Foreign Currency Translation

 

Since the Company operates primarily in the PRC, the Company’s functional currency is the Renminbi (“RMB”). The Company’s financial statements have been translated into the reporting currency of the United States Dollar (“USD”, “US$” or “$”). Assets and liabilities of the Company are translated at the exchange rate at each reporting period end date. Equity is translated at the historical exchange rate when the transaction occurs. Income and expense accounts are translated at the average rate of exchange during the reporting period. The resulting translation adjustments are reported under other comprehensive income (loss). Gains and losses resulting from the translation of foreign currency transactions and balances are reflected in the results of operations.

 

   As of 
   March 31,
2024
   December 31,
2023
 
Period end RMB: US$ exchange rate   7.2203    7.0999 

 

   For the three months ended
March 31,
 
   2024   2023 
Period average RMB: US$ exchange rate   7.1885    6.8423 

 

The RMB is not freely convertible into foreign currency and all foreign exchange transactions must take place through authorized institutions. The PRC government imposes significant exchange restrictions on fund transfers out of the PRC that are not related to business operations.

 

Cash and Cash Equivalents

 

For financial reporting purposes, the Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. The Company maintains its bank accounts with various financial institutions primarily in mainland China and the U.S. The Company has not experienced any losses in bank accounts. 

 

Restricted Cash

 

Restricted cash represents amounts held by a bank as security for bank acceptance bills, as well as the financial product secured for the short-term bank loan and therefore is not available for the Company’s use until such time as the bank acceptance notes and bank loans have been fulfilled or expired, normally within a twelve-month period.

 

Fair Value of Financial Instruments

 

The Company applies the provisions of ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures, to the financial instruments that are required to be carried at fair value. Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The Company uses a three-tier fair value hierarchy based upon observable and non-observable inputs that prioritizes the information used to develop our assumptions regarding fair value. Fair value measurements are separately disclosed by level within the fair value hierarchy.

 

  Level 1—defined as observable inputs such as quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities;

 

  Level 2—defined as inputs other than quoted prices in active markets, that are either directly or indirectly observable; and

 

  Level 3—defined as unobservable inputs in which little or no market data exists, therefore requiring an entity to develop its own assumptions.

 

The Company’s financial assets and liabilities, which include financial instruments as defined by FASB ASC 820, include cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash, short term investment, accounts receivable, notes receivables, due from related party, fixed deposit, short term bank loans, accounts payable, other payable, notes payable and warrant liability. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the carrying amounts of cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, accounts receivable, notes receivables, notes payables and accounts payable were approximation of their fair value due to the short-term nature. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, fixed deposits and bank loans were measured at amortized cost.

 

F-10

 

   

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 2 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (CONTINUED)

 

The following table summarizes the fair value measurements of assets and liabilities that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of March 31, 2024:

 

(amount in absolute value)  Active Market
for Identical
Assets
(Level 1)
   Observable
Inputs
(Level 2)
   Unobservable
Inputs
(Level 3)
   Total
Carrying
Value
 
Short term investment  $2,794,690    
-
    
     -
   $2,794,690 
Warrants liability   
-
    3,049,299    
-
    3,049,299 
                     
Total  $2,794,690    3,049,299    
-
   $5,843,989 

 

Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Expected Credit Losses

 

Accounts receivable are stated at the historical carrying amount net of allowance for expected credit losses.

 

The Company adopted ASU No. 2016-13, “Financial Instruments — Credit Losses (Topic 326), Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments” on January 1, 2023 using a modified retrospective approach. The Company also adopted this guidance to notes receivable and due from related parties.

 

To estimate expected credit losses, the Company has identified the relevant risk characteristics of its customers and the related receivables. The Company considers the past collection experience, current economic conditions, future economic conditions (external data and macroeconomic factors) and changes in the Company’s customer collection trends. The allowance for expected credit losses and corresponding receivables were written off when they are determined to be uncollectible.

 

Inventories

 

Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value, which is based on estimated selling prices less any further costs expected to be incurred for completion and disposal. Cost of raw materials is calculated using the weighted average method and is based on purchase cost. Work-in-progress and finished goods costs are determined using the weighted average method and comprise direct materials, direct labor and an appropriate proportion of overhead.

 

Advance to Suppliers

 

Advance to suppliers represents interest-free cash paid in advance to suppliers for purchases of parts and/or raw materials. The balance of advance to suppliers was $0.61 million and $0.29 million as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively.

 

Property, Plant, and Equipment

 

Property, plant, and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation, and include expenditure that substantially increases the useful lives of existing assets. Expenditures for repairs and maintenance, which do not extend the useful life of the assets, are expensed as incurred.

 

Depreciation is provided over their estimated useful lives, using the straight-line method. Estimated useful lives are as follows:

 

Plant, buildings and improvements   20 years
Machinery and equipment   2~10 years
Motor vehicles   4 years
Office equipment   3~5 years
Fixtures and decorations   5 years

  

F-11

 

   

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 2 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (CONTINUED)

 

When assets are sold or retired, their costs and accumulated depreciation are eliminated from the consolidated financial statements and any gain or loss resulting from their disposal is recognized in the period of disposition as an element of other income. The cost of maintenance and repairs is charged to income as incurred, whereas significant renewals and betterments are capitalized.

 

Construction in process

 

Property and equipment that are purchased or constructed which require a period of time before the assets are ready for their intended use are accounted for as construction-in-progress. Construction-in-progress is recorded at acquisition cost, including installation costs. Construction-in-progress is transferred to specific property and equipment accounts and commences depreciation when these assets are ready for their intended use. 

 

Land Use Rights

 

According to the PRC laws, the government owns all the land in the PRC. Companies or individuals are authorized to possess and use the land only through land use rights granted by the Chinese government. The land use rights granted to the Company are being amortized using the straight-line method over the lease term of fifty years.

 

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

 

Long-lived assets are evaluated for impairment periodically whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their related carrying amounts may not be recoverable in accordance with FASB ASC 360, “Property, Plant and Equipment”.

 

In evaluating long-lived assets for recoverability, the Company uses its best estimate of future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset and eventual disposition in accordance with FASB ASC 360-10-15. To the extent that estimated future, undiscounted cash inflows attributable to the asset, less estimated future, undiscounted cash outflows, are less than the carrying amount, an impairment loss is recognized in an amount equal to the difference between the carrying value of such asset and its fair value. Assets to be disposed of and for which there is a committed plan of disposal, whether through sale or abandonment, are reported at the lower of carrying value or fair value less costs to sell. There was no impairment loss recognized for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023.

 

Lease

 

ASC 842 supersedes the lease requirements in ASC 840 “Leases,” and generally requires lessees to recognize operating and finance lease liabilities and corresponding right-of-use assets on the balance sheet and to provide enhanced disclosures surrounding the amount, timing and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leasing arrangements. Leases that transfer substantially all of the benefits and risks incidental to the ownership of assets are accounted for as finance leases as if there was an acquisition of an asset and incurrence of an obligation at the inception of the lease. All other leases are accounted for as operating leases.

 

A sale-leaseback transaction occurs when an entity sells an asset it owns and immediately leases the asset back from the buyer. The seller then becomes the lessee and the buyer becomes the lessor. Under ASC 842, both parties must assess whether the buyer-lessor has obtained control of the asset and a sale has occurred.

 

The Company has leased premises for its offices under non-cancellable operating leases since May 2021 and its assembly site under non-cancellable operating leases since June 2022. Operating lease payments are expensed over the term of lease using straight line method. The Company’s office leases have a 3-year term and the lease of its assembly site has a 5.5-year term. Usually within four months prior to the expiration date of a lease, the Company is required to notify the lessor and has a priority to continue renting the lease property if a lessor intends to lease property. The lease itself does not have restrictions or covenants. Any damage, if made by the lessee, to the property and equipment within the property has to been fixed or reimbursed by the lessee. The Company does not have any leases entered into that have not yet commenced. Under the terms of the lease agreements, the Company has no legal or contractual asset retirement obligations at the end of the leases.

 

F-12

 

  

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 2 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (CONTINUED)

  

Revenue Recognition

 

In accordance with ASC Topic 606, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers,” the Company recognizes revenues when goods or services are transferred to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration which the Company expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. In determining when and how revenues are recognized from contracts with customers, the Company performs the following five-step analysis: (i) identification of contract with customer; (ii) determination of performance obligations; (iii) measurement of the transaction price; (iv) allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations and (v) recognition of revenues when (or as) the Company satisfies each performance obligation. The Company derives revenues from the processing, distribution and sale of its products. The Company recognizes its revenues net of value-added taxes (“VAT”). The Company is subject to VAT which had been levied at the rate of 17% on the invoiced value of sales until April 30, 2018, after which date the rate was reduced to 16%. VAT rate was further reduced to 13% starting from April 1, 2019. Output VAT is borne by customers in addition to the invoiced value of sales and input VAT is borne by the Company in addition to the invoiced value of purchases to the extent not refunded for export sales.

 

Revenues are recognized at a point in time once the Company has determined that the customer has obtained control over the product. Control is typically deemed to have been transferred to the customer when the performance obligation is fulfilled, usually at the time of customers’ acceptance or consumption, at the net sales price (transaction price) and each of the criteria under ASC 606 have been met. Contract terms may require the Company to deliver the finished goods to the customers’ location or the customer may pick up the finished goods at the Company’s factory. International sales are recognized when shipment clears customs and leaves the port. Payments due within two months after customers’ acceptance or consumption.

 

The Company adopted ASC 606 on January 1, 2018, using the transition method of Modified-Retrospective Method (“MRM”). The adoption of ASC 606 had no impact on the Company’s beginning balance of retained earnings.

 

The Company’s contracts are all short-term in nature with a contract term of one year or less. Receivables are recorded when the Company has an unconditional right to consideration.

 

Contracts do not offer any price protection but allow for the return of certain goods if there is a quality problem, which is standard warranty. The Company’s product returns and recorded reserve for sales returns were minimal for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023. The total sales return amount accounted for around 0.06% and 0.07% of the total revenue of Greenland for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023.The total warrants expenditures amount accounted for around 0.44% and 0.46% of the total revenue of Greenland for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023.

 

The following table sets forth disaggregation of revenue:

 

  

For the

three months ended

March 31,

 
   2024   2023 
Major Product        
Transmission boxes for Forklift  $21,774,394   $20,868,739 
Transmission boxes for Non-Forklift (EV, etc.)   949,197    1,280,621 
Total  $22,723,591   $22,149,360 

 

F-13

 

  

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 2 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (CONTINUED)

 

Cost of Goods Sold

 

Cost of goods sold consists primarily of material costs, freight charges, purchasing and receiving costs, inspection costs, internal transfer costs, wages, employee compensation, amortization, depreciation and related costs, which are directly attributable to the production of products. Write-down of inventory to lower of cost or net realizable value is also recorded in cost of goods sold.

 

Selling Expenses 

 

Selling expenses include operating expenses such as payroll and traveling and transportation expenses. 

 

General and Administrative Expenses

 

General and administrative expenses include management and office salaries and employee benefits, depreciation for office facility and office equipment, travel and entertainment, legal and accounting, consulting fees and other office expenses.

 

Research and Development

 

Research and development costs are expensed as incurred and totaled approximately $0.99 million and $1.12 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. Research and development costs are incurred on a project specific basis.

 

Government Subsidies

 

Government subsidies are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the subsidy will be received and all attaching conditions will be complied with. When the subsidy relates to an expense item, it is recognized as income over the periods necessary to match the subsidy on a systematic basis to the costs that it is intended to compensate. Where the subsidy relates to an asset, it is recognized as other long-term liabilities and is released to the statement of operations over the expected useful life in a consistent manner with the depreciation method for the relevant asset. Total government subsidies recorded in the other long-term liabilities were $1.45 million and $1.53 million as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively.

 

Income Taxes

 

The Company accounts for income taxes following the liability method pursuant to FASB ASC 740 “Income Taxes”. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the difference between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates that will be in effect in the period in which the differences are expected to reverse. The Company records a valuation allowance to offset deferred tax assets if, based on the weight of available evidence, it is more-likely-than-not that some portion, or all, of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The effect on deferred taxes of a change in tax rate is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.

 

F-14

 

  

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 2 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (CONTINUED)

 

The Company also follows FASB ASC 740, which addresses the determination of whether tax benefits claimed or expected to be claimed on a tax return should be recorded in the financial statements. The Company may recognize the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the financial statements from such a position should be measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than fifty percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. ASC 740 also provides guidance on recognition, classification, interest and penalties on income taxes, accounting in interim periods and requires increased disclosures. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the Company did not have a liability for unrecognized tax benefits. It is the Company’s policy to include penalties and interest expense related to income taxes as a component of other expense and interest expense, respectively, as necessary. The Company’s historical tax years will remain open for examination by the local authorities until the statute of limitations has passed.

 

Value-Added Tax

 

Enterprises or individuals, who sell commodities, engage in repair and maintenance or import or export goods in the PRC are subject to a value added tax in accordance with PRC Laws. The VAT standard rate had been 17% of the gross sale price until April 30, 2018, after which date the rate was reduced to 16%. VAT rate was further reduced to 13% starting from April 1, 2019. A credit is available whereby VAT paid on the purchases of semi-finished products or raw materials used in the production of the Company’s finished products can be used to offset the VAT due on the sales of the finished products.

 

Statutory Reserve

 

In accordance with the PRC Regulations on Enterprises with Foreign Investment, an enterprise established in the PRC with foreign investment is required to provide for certain statutory reserves, namely (i) a General Reserve Fund, (ii) an Enterprise Expansion Fund and (iii) a Staff Welfare and Bonus Fund, which are appropriated from net profit as reported in the enterprise’s PRC statutory accounts. A wholly owned foreign enterprise is required to allocate at least 10% of its annual after-tax profit to the General Reserve Fund until the balance of such fund has reached 50% of its respective registered capital. A non-wholly owned foreign invested enterprise is permitted to provide for the above allocation at the discretion of its board of directors. Appropriations to the Enterprise Expansion Fund and Staff Welfare and Bonus Fund are at the discretion of the board of directors for all foreign invested enterprises. The reserves can only be used for specific purposes and are not distributable as cash dividends.

 

Comprehensive Income (Loss)

 

Comprehensive income (loss) is defined as the change in equity during the year from transactions and other events, excluding the changes resulting from investments by owners and distributions to owners, and is not included in the computation of income tax expense or benefit. Accumulated comprehensive income consists of foreign currency translation. The Company presents comprehensive income (loss) in accordance with ASC Topic 220, “Comprehensive Income”.

 

F-15

 

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 2 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (CONTINUED)

 

Earnings per share

 

The Company calculates earnings per share in accordance with ASC Topic 260 “Earnings per Share.” Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the net income(loss) attributable to Greenland Technologies Holding Corporation, by the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per share is computed similar to basic earnings per share except that the denominator is increased to include the number of additional ordinary shares that would have been outstanding if the potential ordinary shares equivalents had been issued and if the additional ordinary shares were dilutive.

 

Segments and Related Information

 

ASC 280 “Segment reporting” establishes standards for reporting information on operating segments in interim and annual financial statements. All of the Company’s operations are considered by the chief operating decision maker to be aggregated in one reportable operating segment. 

 

The Company is engaged in the business of manufacturing and selling various transmission boxes. The Company’s manufacturing process is essentially the same for the entire Company and is performed in-house at the Company’s facilities in the PRC. The Company’s customers primarily consist of entities in the automotive, construction machinery or warehousing equipment industries. The distribution of the Company’s products is consistent across the entire Company. In addition, the economic characteristics of each customer arrangement are similar in that the Company maintains policies at the corporate level. 

 

Commitments and contingencies

 

In the normal course of business, the Company is subject to contingencies, including legal proceedings and environmental claims arising out of the normal course of businesses that relate to a wide range of matters, including among others, contracts breach liability. The Company records accruals for such contingencies based upon the assessment of the probability of occurrence and, where determinable, an estimate of the liability. Management may consider many factors in making these assessments including past history, scientific evidence and the specifics of each matter. The Company’s management has evaluated all such proceedings and claims that existed as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023. Normal course of businesses that relate to a wide range of matters, including among others, contracts breach liability. The Company records accruals for such contingencies based upon the assessment of the probability of occurrence and, where determinable, an estimate of the liability. Management may consider many factors in making these assessments including past history, scientific evidence and the specifics of each matter. The Company’s management has evaluated all such proceedings and claims that existed as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023.

 

Related Party

 

In general, related parties exist when there is a relationship that offers the potential for transactions at less than arm’s-length, favorable treatment, or the ability to influence the outcome of events different from that outcome which might result in the absence of that relationship. A related party may be any of the following: a) an affiliate, which is a party that directly or indirectly controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with another party; b) a principle owner, owner of record or known beneficial owner of more than 10% of the voting interest of an entity; c) management, which are persons having responsibility for achieving objectives of the entity and requisite authority to make decision; d) immediate family of management or principal owners; e) a parent company and its subsidiaries; f) other parties that have ability to significant influence the management or operating policies of the entity; and g) other parties that can significantly influence the management or operating policies of the transacting parties or that have an ownership interest in one of the transacting parties and can significantly influence the other to an extent that one or more of the transacting parties might be prevented from fully pursuing its or their own separate interests. The Company discloses all significant related party transactions.

 

F-16

 

  

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 2 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (CONTINUED)

 

Uncertainty and Risks

 

Political, Social and Economic Risks

 

A significant portion of the Company’s operations are conducted in the PRC. Accordingly, the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations may be influenced by the political, economic and legal environment in the PRC, and by the general state of the PRC economy.

 

The Company’s operations in the PRC are subject to special considerations and significant risks not typically associated with companies in North America and Western Europe. These include risks associated with, among others, the political, economic and legal environment and foreign currency exchange. The Company’s results may be adversely affected by changes in the political and social conditions in the PRC, and by changes in governmental policies with respect to laws and regulations, anti-inflationary measures, currency conversion, remittances abroad, and rates and methods of taxation, among other things.

 

Currency Exchange Risk

 

The Company cannot guarantee that the current exchange rate will remain steady. Therefore, there is a possibility that the Company could post the same amount of profit for two comparable periods and yet, because of the fluctuating exchange rate, record higher or lower profit depending on exchange rate of RMB converted to U.S. dollars on the relevant dates. The exchange rate could fluctuate depending on changes in the political and economic environment without notice.

 

Concentration of Credit Risk

 

Financial instruments that potentially expose the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash in bank and accounts receivable.

 

The Company places its cash with financial institutions in the PRC and the U.S. Balances at financial institutions and state-owned banks within the PRC are covered by insurance up to RMB500,000 (USD70,000) per bank. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the Company’s bank account balance in the PRC was $32,560,610 and $33,033,191, respectively, exceeding PRC deposit insurance of RMB500,000 (USD70,000) as of each year end. To date, the Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts.

 

The Company’s bank deposits in the U.S. are insured to the maximum extent permitted by the Deposit Insurance Fund in the U.S. Dodd-Frank permanently increased the maximum amount of deposit insurance to $250,000 per depositor, per insured institution for each account ownership category. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) insurance is backed by the full faith and credit of the United States government. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the Company’s bank account balance in the United States was $1,411,614 and $3,797,076, respectively, exceeding FDIC insurance of $250,000 as of each year end. To date, the Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts.

 

The Company conducts credit evaluations of customers, and generally does not require collateral or other security from its customers. The Company establishes an allowance for expected credit losses primarily based upon the factors surrounding the credit risk of specific customers.

 

Warrants

 

The Company accounts for warrants as either equity-classified or liability-classified instruments based on an assessment of the warrant’s specific terms and applicable authoritative guidance in the ASC 480, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity (“ASC 480”) and ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging (“ASC 815”). Management’s assessment considers whether the warrants are freestanding financial instruments pursuant to ASC 480, whether they meet the definition of a liability pursuant to ASC 480, and whether the warrants meet all of the requirements for equity classification under ASC 815, including whether the warrants are indexed to the Company’s own ordinary shares and whether the warrant holders could potentially require “net cash settlement” in a circumstance outside of the Company’s control, among other conditions for equity classification. This assessment, which requires the use of professional judgment, is conducted at the time of warrant issuance and as of each subsequent quarterly period-end date while the warrants are outstanding.

 

For issued or modified warrants that meet all of the criteria for equity classification, they are recorded as a component of additional paid-in capital at the time of issuance. For issued or modified warrants that do not meet all the criteria for equity classification, they are recorded as warrant liability at their initial fair value on the date of issuance and subject to remeasurement each balance sheet date with changes in the estimated fair value of the warrants to be recognized as a non-cash gain or loss in the statement of operations.

  

F-17

 

  

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 2 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (CONTINUED)

 

Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements

 

Recent accounting pronouncements that the Company has adopted or may be required to adopt in the future are summarized below:

 

In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Credit Losses, Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. This ASU provides more useful information about expected credit losses to financial statement users and changes how entities will measure credit losses on financial instruments and timing of when such losses should be recognized. This ASU is effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2019 for issuers and December 15, 2020 for non-issuers. Early adoption is permitted for all entities for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods therein. In May 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-05, Financial Instruments — Credit Losses (Topic 326): Targeted Transition Relief. This update adds optional transition relief for entities to elect the fair value option for certain financial assets previously measured at amortized cost basis to increase comparability of similar financial assets. The updates should be applied through a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the first reporting period in which the guidance is effective (that is, a modified retrospective approach). On November 19, 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-10 to amend the effective date for ASU 2016-13 to be fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022 and interim periods therein. The Company adopted this guidance on January 1, 2023, and the adoption did not have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.

 

In March 2023, the FASB issued an ASU to amend certain provisions of ASC 842 that apply to arrangements between related parties under common control. The ASU amends the accounting for the amortization period of leasehold improvements in common-control leases for all entities and requires certain disclosures when the lease term is shorter than the useful life of the asset. This ASU is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. We do not expect the application of this ASU to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements or financial disclosures.

 

In November 2023, Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2023-07, “Improvements to Reportable Segment Disclosures” was issued. ASU 2023-07 requires, among other updates, enhanced disclosures about significant segment expenses that are regularly provided to the chief operating decision maker, as well as the aggregate amount of other segment items included in the reported measure of segment profit or loss. This aims to provide more decision-useful information to stakeholders by giving a clearer picture of the costs incurred by each reportable segment. ASU 2023-07 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2024, and requires retrospective adoption. Early adoption is permitted. We are assessing the impact of this guidance on our disclosures.

 

In December 2023, ASU 2023-09, “Improvements to Income Tax Disclosures” was issued. ASU 2023-09 requires enhanced annual disclosures regarding the rate reconciliation and income taxes paid. ASU 2023-09 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2024, and may be adopted on a prospective or retrospective basis. Early adoption is permitted. We are assessing the impact of this guidance on our disclosures.

 

Other accounting standards that have been issued by FASB that do not require adoption until a future date are not expected to have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements upon adoption. The Company does not discuss recent pronouncements that are not anticipated to have an impact on, or are unrelated to, its consolidated financial condition, results of operations, cash flows or disclosures.

 

NOTE 3 – SHORT TERM INVESTMENT

 

As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the Company’s short term investment amounted to $2,794,690 and $2,818,068, respectively. On December 22, 2023, the Company purchased bank management products in a total amount of $2,824,500 (RMB20,000,000). As of March 31, 2024, the fair value of the Company’s bank management products was $2,794,690(RMB20,178,500).

 

F-18

 

  

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 4 – CONCENTRATION ON REVENUES AND COST OF GOODS SOLD

 

Concentration of major customers and suppliers:

 

   For the three months
ended March 31,
 
   2024   2023 
Major customers representing more than 10% of the Company’s revenues                
Company A  $3,214,771    14.15%  $4,329,109    14.98%
Company B   2,540,367    11.18%   2,545,243    11.75 
Total Revenues  $5,755,138    25.33%  $6,874,352    26.73%

 

   As of 
   March 31,
2024
   December 31,
2023
 
Major customers of the Company’s accounts receivable, net                
Company A   3,133,412    14.81%   2,143,828    12.36%
Company B   1,924,675    9.10%   1,582,994    9.12%
Company C   1,598,495    7.55%   1,415,116    8.16%
Company D   1,501,170    7.09%   1,370,447    7.90%
Company E   1,351,064    6.39%   1,192,684    6.87%
Company F   1,195,591    5.65%   746,874    4.30%
Total  $10,704,407    50.59%  $8,451,944    48.71%

 

Accounts receivable from the Company’s major customers accounted for 50.59% and 48.71% of total accounts receivable balances as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively.

 

There were no suppliers representing more than 10% of the Company’s total purchases for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively.

 

NOTE 5 – ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE

 

Accounts receivable is net of allowance for expected credit losses.

 

   As of 
   March 31,
2024
   December 31,
2023
 
Accounts receivable  $22,581,348   $17,351,398 
Less: allowance for expected credit losses   (1,421,720)   (867,865)
Accounts receivable, net  $21,159,628   $16,483,533 

 

Changes in the allowance for expected credit losses are as follows:

 

    As of  
    March 31,
2024
   

December 31,
2023

 
Beginning balance   $ 867,865     $ 762,325  
Additional provision charged to expense     570,841       127,646  
Effect of FX change     (16,986 )     (22,106 )
Ending balance   $ 1,421,720     $ 867,865  

 

F-19

 

  

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 6 – INVENTORIES, NET

 

As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, inventories consisted of the following

 

   As of 
   March 31,
2024
   December 31,
2023
 
Raw materials  $9,363,172   $9,337,110 
Revolving material   1,157,597    1,143,558 
Consigned processing material   66,593    60,754 
Work-in-progress   2,372,074    2,501,368 
Finished goods   12,299,745    12,192,937 
Less: inventory impairment   (512,937)   (638,932)
Inventories, net  $24,746,244   $24,596,795 

 

Changes in the inventory reserves are as follows:

 

   As of 
   March 31,
2024
   December 31,
2023
 
Beginning balance  $638,932   $375,846 
(Release of) inventory write-downs   120,540    271,233 
Effect of FX change   (5,455)   (8,147)
Ending balance  $512,937   $638,932 

 

NOTE 7 – NOTES RECEIVABLE

 

   As of 
   March 31,
2024
   December 31,
2023
 
Bank notes receivable:  $30,838,872   $27,135,249 
Commercial notes receivable   1,286,708    
-
 
Total  $32,125,580   $27,135,249 

 

Bank notes and commercial notes are means of payment from customers for the purchase of the Company’s products and are issued by financial institutions or business entities, respectively, that entitle the Company to receive the full nominal amount from the issuers at maturity, which bear no interest and generally range from three to six months from the date of issuance. As of March 31, 2024, the Company pledged notes receivable for an aggregate amount of $24.96 million to Bank of Hangzhou as a means of security for issuance of bank acceptance notes in an aggregate amount of $20.34 million. As of December 31, 2023, the Company pledged notes receivable for an aggregate amount of $21.85 million to Bank of Hangzhou as a means of security for issuance of bank acceptance notes in an aggregate amount of $19.35 million. The Company expects to collect notes receivable within 6 months after the issuance date of bank acceptance notes.

  

Due to the short term, high-quality credit rating of these commercial banks and no losses have occurred in history, for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, the Company had no allowance for expected credit losses for notes receivable.

 

F-20

 

  

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

  

NOTE 8 – PROPERTY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT AND CONSTRUCTION IN PROGRESS

 

(a) As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, property, plant and equipment consisted of the following:

 

   As of 
   March 31, 2024   December 31,
2023
 
Buildings  $11,254,060   $11,444,906 
Machinery   21,372,387    20,974,546 
Motor vehicles   331,031    336,541 
Electronic equipment   246,238    246,207 
Fixed assets decoration*   
-
    
-
 
Total property plant and equipment, at cost   33,203,716    33,002,200 
           
Less: accumulated depreciation   (19,481,209)   (19,325,844)
Property, plant and equipment, net  $13,722,507   $13,676,356 
Construction in process   387,985    22,641 
Total  $14,110,492   $13,698,997 

   

For the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, depreciation expense amounted to $0.49 million and $0.54 million, respectively, of which $0.30 million and $0.30 million, respectively, was included in cost of revenue and inventories, and the remainder was included in general and administrative expense and research and development expenses, respectively.

 

For the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, $0.02 million and $0 of construction-in-progress was converted into fixed assets.

 

Restricted assets consist of the following:

 

   As of 
   March 31, 2024   December 31,
2023
 
Buildings, net  $1,958,936   $2,024,994 
Total   1,958,936    2,024,994 

 

As of March 31, 2024, the Company pledged its ownership interests in certain buildings for book value of RMB14.14 million ($1.96 million) as security with Communications Bank of PRC for its loan facility with maximum exposure of RMB60.01 million.

  

NOTE 9 – LAND USE RIGHTS

 

Land use rights consisted of the following:

 

   As of 
   March 31, 2024   December 31,
2023
 
Land use rights, cost  $4,261,125   $4,333,386 
Less: Accumulated amortization   (891,431)   (884,881)
Land use rights, net  $3,369,694   $3,448,505 

 

As of March 31, 2024, the Company had land use rights with net book value of $1.07 million, which were pledged as collateral for the Company’s short-term bank loans. As of December 31, 2023, the Company had land use rights with net book value of $1.14 million, which were pledged as collateral for the Company’s short-term bank loans.

 

Estimated future amortization expense is as follows as of March 31, 2024:

 

Years ending March 31,  Amortization
expense
 
2025  $85,600 
2026   85,600 
2027   85,600 
2028   85,600 
2029   85,600 
Thereafter   2,941,694 
Total  $3,369,694 

 

F-21

 

  

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 10 – FIXED DEPOSIT

 

As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, fixed deposit consisted of the following:

 

   As of 
   March 31, 2024   December 31,
2023
 
Three-year bank deposit  $15,395,169   $9,916,308 
Total  $15,395,169   $9,916,308 

 

All fixed deposit were deposited in local banks in the PRC and the deposit term is three years. Fixed deposits will expire in 2026.

  

NOTE 11 – NOTES PAYABLE

 

   As of 
   March 31,
2024
   December 31,
2023
 
Bank acceptance notes  $33,167,150   $36,712,562 
Total  $33,167,150   $36,712,562 

 

The interest-free notes payable, ranging from six months to one year from the date of issuance, were secured by $3.85 million and $5.21 million restricted cash, and $24.96 million and $21.85 million notes receivable, as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively.

 

All the notes payable are subject to bank charges of 0.05% of the principal amount as commission, included in the financial expenses in the statement of operations, on each loan transaction. The interest charge of notes payable is free.

 

NOTE 12 – ACCOUNTS PAYABLE

 

Accounts payable are summarized as follow: 

 

   As of 
   March 31,
2024
   December 31,
2023
 
Procurement of Materials  $30,519,650   $25,011,515 
Infrastructure& Equipment   202,703    43,530 
Freight fee   123,112    217,483 
Total  $30,845,465   $25,272,528 

 

NOTE 13 – SHORT TERM BANK LOANS

 

Short-term loans are summarized as follow:

 

   As of 
   March 31,
2024
   December 31,
2023
 
Collateralized bank loans  $2,714,569   $2,760,602 
Unsecured bank loans   5,539,936    281,694 
Total  $8,254,505   $3,042,296 

 

F-22

 

  

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 13 – SHORT TERM BANK LOANS (CONTINUED)

 

Short-term loans as of March 31, 2024 are as follow:

 

Maturity Date   Type   Bank Name   Interest
Rate per
Annum (%)
    March 31, 2024  
July 22, 2024   Operating Loans   Bank of Zheshang     3.60     $ 1,329,585  
July 25, 2024   Operating Loans   Bank of Hangzhou     3.55       1,384,984  
March 18, 2025   Operating Loans   Agricultural Bank of China     2.90       2,769,968  
March 25, 2025   Operating Loans   Industrial and Commercial Bank of Xinchang     2.90     $ 2,769,968  
Total                   $  8,254,505  

 

Short-term loans as of December 31, 2023 are as follow:

 

Maturity Date   Type   Bank Name   Interest
Rate per
Annum (%)
    December 31,
2023
 
July 22, 2024   Operating Loans   Bank of Zheshang     3.60     $ 1,352,132  
July 25, 2024   Operating Loans   Bank of Hangzhou     3.55       1,408,470  
February 22, 2024   Operating Loans   Industrial and Commercial Bank of Xinchang     3.45     $ 281,694  
Total                   $ 3,042,296  

 

All short-term bank loans were obtained from local banks in the PRC and are repayable within one year.

 

The average annual interest rate of the short-term bank loans was 3.122% and 3.880% for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. The Company was in compliance with its loan financial covenants as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively.  

 

NOTE 14 – OTHER CURRENT LIABILITIES

 

Other current liabilities are summarized as follow:

 

   As of 
   March 31, 2024   December 31,
2023
 
Employee payables   119,999    807,615 
Other tax payables   287,844    507,464 
Other payable   100,704    115,443 
Accrued expenses   1,439,149    660,985 
Total  $1,947,696   $2,091,507 

 

F-23

 

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 15 – DEFERRED REVENUE

 

Deferred revenue is summarized as follow:

 

   As of 
   March 31,
2024
   December 31,
2023
 
Subsidy   1,447,490    1,529,831 
Total  $1,447,490   $1,529,831 

 

Subsidy mainly consists of an incentive granted by the Chinese government to encourage transformation of fixed assets in China and other miscellaneous subsidy from the Chinese government. As of March 31, 2024, grant income decreased by $0.08 million, as compared to December 31, 2023. The change was mainly due to timing of incurring qualifying expenses.

 

NOTE 16 – LEASES

 

The Company leases its corporate offices and assembly site under operating leases, with initial terms of 3 years and 5.58 years, respectively. Usually within four months prior to the expiration date of a lease, the Company is required to notify the lessor and has a priority to continue renting the lease property if a lessor intends to lease property. The lease itself does not have restrictions or covenants. Any damage, if made by the lessee, to the property and equipment within the property has to been fixed or reimbursed by the lessee.

 

Supplemental balance sheet information related to leases as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 is as follows:

 

   As of 
   March 31,
2024
   December 31,
2023
 
Assets:        
Right-of-use assets  $1,996,392   $2,125,542 
Liabilities:          
Lease liabilities  $488,568   $487,695 
Lease liabilities   1,560,279    1,684,614 
Total operating lease liabilities  $2,048,847   $2,172,309 
Lease term and discount rate          
Weighted average remaining lease term (in years)   1.87    2.09 
Weighted average discount rate   4.6    4.5 

 

The following summarizes the components of operating lease expense and provides supplemental cash flow information for operating leases:

 

   For the three months ended
March 31,
 
   2024   2023 
Components of lease expense:        
Operating lease expense  $158,643   $155,791 
Total lease expense  $158,643   $155,791 

 

The following table summarizes the maturity of lease liabilities under operating leases as of March 31, 2024:

 

For the years ending March 31, 

Operating

Leases

 
2025  $579,898 
2026   593,454 
2027   610,684 
2028   470,644 
Total lease payments  $2,254,680 
Less: imputed interest   (205,833)
Present value of lease liabilities   2,048,847 

 

F-24

 

  

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 17 – WARRANT LIABILITY

 

The Company accounts for warrants as either equity-classified or liability-classified instruments based on an assessment of the warrant’s specific terms and applicable authoritative guidance in FASBASC 480, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity (“ASC 480”) and ASC 815. The assessment considers whether the warrants are freestanding financial instruments pursuant to ASC 480, meet the definition of a liability pursuant to ASC 480, and whether the warrants meet all of the requirements for equity classification under ASC 815, including whether the warrants are indexed to the Company’s own ordinary shares and whether the warrant holders could potentially require “net cash settlement” in a circumstance outside of the Company’s control, among other conditions for equity classification. This assessment, which requires the use of professional judgment, is conducted at the time of warrant issuance and as of each subsequent quarterly period end date while the warrants are outstanding.

 

For issued or modified warrants that meet all of the criteria for equity classification, the warrants are required to be recorded as a component of additional paid-in capital at the time of issuance. For issued or modified warrants that do not meet all the criteria for equity classification, the warrants are required to be recorded at their initial fair value on the date of issuance, and each balance sheet date thereafter. Changes in the estimated fair value of the warrants are recognized as a non-cash gain or loss on the statements of operations.

 

In connection with the registered direct offering closed on July 27, 2022, the Company issued to an investor a warrant to purchase up to 4,530,000 ordinary shares at an exercise price of $4.49 per share. The warrant became exercisable on January 27, 2023 and will expire on January 26, 2028.

 

The warrants meet the definition of a derivative under FASB ASC 815, as the Company cannot avoid a net cash settlement under certain circumstances. The fair value of the warrant liabilities was measured using a Black–Scholes model. Significant inputs into the model as of the reporting period begin remeasurement dates, and as of the reporting period end remeasurement dates are as follows:

 

   Ordinary Share
Warrants
   Ordinary Share
Warrants
 
  

March 31,
2024

   December 31,
2023
 
         
Share price  $2.21   $  2.79 
Exercise price  $4.49   $4.49 
Annual dividend yield   
-
%   
-
%
Expected term (years)   1.91    2.04 
Risk-free interest rate   4.6%   4.2%
Expected volatility   90.00%   80.00%

 

The warrants outstanding and fair values at each of the respective valuation dates are summarized below:

 

   As of 
  

March 31,

2024

   December 31,
2023
 
Number of ordinary share warrants   4,530,000    4,530,000 
Fair value of the warrants  $3,049,299   $4,084,605 

 

The fair value of the warrants was classified as a liability of $4,084,605 as of December 31, 2023. For the three months ended March 31, 2024, the Company recognized a gain of $1,035,306 for the investor warrant from the change in fair value of the warrant liability. As a result, the warrant liability is carried on the consolidated balance sheets at the fair value of $3,049,299 for the investor warrant, collectively, as of March 31, 2024.

 

F-25

 

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 18 – SHAREHOLDER’S EQUITY

 

Preferred Shares — The Company is authorized to issue an unlimited number of no par value preferred shares, divided into five classes, Class A through Class E, each with such designation, rights and preferences as may be determined by a resolution of the Company’s board of directors to amend the Memorandum and Articles of Association to create such designations, rights and preferences. The Company has five classes of preferred shares to give the Company flexibility as to the terms on which each class is issued. All shares of a single class must be issued with the same rights and obligations. Accordingly, starting with five classes of preferred shares will allow the Company to issue shares at different times on different terms. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, there were no preferred shares designated, issued or outstanding.

 

Ordinary Shares — The Company is authorized to issue an unlimited number of no par value ordinary shares. Holders of the Company’s ordinary shares are entitled to one vote for each share. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, there were 13,594,530 and 13,594,530 ordinary shares issued and outstanding.

  

Warrants — Redeemable warrants sold as part of the units in the Company’s initial public offering, or the Public Warrants (together with the Private Warrants (as defined below), the “Warrants”) may only be exercised for a whole number of shares. No fractional shares will be issued upon exercise of the Public Warrants. The Public Warrants have been exercisable since October 24, 2019. No Public Warrants will be exercisable for cash unless the Company has an effective and current registration statement covering the ordinary shares issuable upon exercise of the Public Warrants and a current prospectus relating to such ordinary shares. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if a registration statement covering the ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of the Public Warrants is not effective within 90 days from the consummation of a Business Combination, the holders may, until such time as there is an effective registration statement and during any period when the Company shall have failed to maintain an effective registration statement, exercise the Public Warrants on a cashless basis pursuant to an available exemption from registration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. If an exemption from registration is not available, holders will not be able to exercise their Public Warrants on a cashless basis. The Public Warrants will expire five years from the consummation of a Business Combination or earlier upon redemption or liquidation.

 

The Company may call the warrants for redemption (excluding the Private Warrants (as defined below)), in whole and not in part, at a price of $0.01 per warrant:

 

  At any time while the Public Warrants are exercisable,

 

  Upon not less than 30 days’ prior written notice of redemption to each Public Warrant holder,

 

  If, and only if, the reported last sale price of the ordinary shares equals or exceeds $16.50 per share, for any 20 trading days within a 30 trading day period ending on the third trading day prior to the notice of redemption to Public Warrant holders, and

 

  If, and only if, there is a current registration statement in effect with respect to the ordinary shares underlying such warrants at the time of redemption and for the entire 30-day trading period referred to above and continuing each day thereafter until the date of redemption.

 

F-26

 

 

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 18 – SHAREHOLDER’S EQUITY (CONTINUED)

 

If the Company calls the Public Warrants for redemption, management will have the option to require all holders that wish to exercise the Public Warrants to do so on a “cashless basis,” as described in the warrant agreement. The exercise price and number of ordinary shares issuable upon exercise of the warrants may be adjusted in certain circumstances including in the event of a stock dividend, extraordinary dividend or recapitalization, reorganization, merger or consolidation. However, the warrants will not be adjusted for issuances of ordinary shares at a price below its exercise price. Additionally, in no event will the Company be required to net cash settle the warrants. Accordingly, the warrants may expire worthless.

 

Private warrants include (i) the 282,000 warrants underlying the units issued to Greenland Asset Management Corporation (the “Sponsor”) and Chardan Capital Markets, LLC (“Chardan”) in a private placement in connection with our initial public offering (“Private Unit Warrants”), and (ii) 120,000 warrants held by Chardan upon the exercise of its unit purchase option to purchase 120,000 units in March 2021 (“Option Warrants,” together with Private Unit Warrants, the “Private Warrants”). The Private Warrants are identical to the Public Warrants underlying the units sold in the Initial Public Offering, except that the Private Warrants and the ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of the Private Warrants are not transferable, assignable or saleable until 30 days after the completion of a Business Combination, subject to certain limited exceptions. Additionally, the Private Warrants are exercisable on a cashless basis and are non-redeemable so long as they are held by the initial purchasers or their permitted transferees. If the Private Warrants are held by someone other than the initial purchasers or their permitted transferees, the Private Warrants will be redeemable by the Company and exercisable by such holders on the same basis as the Public Warrants.

 

On July 25, 2022, the Company issued to an investor a warrant to purchase up to 4,530,000 ordinary shares at an exercise price of $4.49 per share. The warrant became exercisable on January 27, 2023 and will expire on January 26, 2028.

 

As of March 31, 2024, there were a total of 4,705,312 Warrants outstanding, including 4,303,312 Public Warrants held by CEDE & CO, and 142,000 and 260,000 Private Warrants held by Chardan and the Sponsor, respectively.

  

Unit Purchase Option

 

On July 27, 2018, the Company sold to Chardan (and its designees), for $100, an option to purchase up to 240,000 units exercisable at $11.50 per unit (or an aggregate exercise price of $2,760,000), commencing on the consummation of the Business Combination. The unit purchase option may be exercised for cash or on a cashless basis, at the holder’s option, and expired on July 24, 2023. The units issuable upon exercise of the option are identical to those offered in the initial public offering. The Company accounted for the unit purchase option, inclusive of the receipt of $100 cash payment, as an expense of the initial public offering resulting in a charge directly to shareholders’ equity. The option and such units purchased pursuant to the option, as well as the ordinary shares underlying such units, the rights included in such units, the ordinary shares that are issuable for the rights included in such units, the warrants included in such units, and the shares underlying such warrants, have been deemed compensation by FINRA and are therefore subject to a 180-day lock-up pursuant to Rule 5110(g) (1) of FINRA’s Nasdaq Conduct Rules. Additionally, the option may not be sold, transferred, assigned, pledged or hypothecated for a one-year period (including the foregoing 180-day period) following the date of initial public offering except to any underwriter and selected dealer participating in the initial public offering and their bona fide officers or partners. The option grants to holders demand and “piggy back” rights for periods of five and seven years, respectively, from the effective date of the registration statement with respect to the registration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, of the securities directly and indirectly issuable upon exercise of the option. The Company will bear all fees and expenses attendant to registering the securities, other than underwriting commissions which will be paid for by the holders themselves. The exercise price and number of units issuable upon exercise of the option may be adjusted in certain circumstances including in the event of a stock dividend, or the Company’s recapitalization, reorganization, merger or consolidation. However, the option will not be adjusted for issuances of ordinary shares at a price below its exercise price. As of March 31, 2024, the unit purchase option had expired and no unit purchase option exercisable by Chardan is outstanding.

 

F-27

 

  

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 19 – EARNINGS PER SHARE

 

The Company reports earnings per share in accordance with the provisions of the FASB’s related accounting standard. This standard requires presentation of basic and diluted earnings per share in conjunction with the disclosure of the methodology used in computing such earnings per share. Basic earnings per share excludes dilution, but includes vested restricted stocks and is computed by dividing income available to shareholders by the weighted average ordinary shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per share takes into account the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue ordinary shares were exercised and converted into ordinary shares.

 

The following is a reconciliation of the basic and diluted earnings per share computation:

 

  

For the three months ended

March 31,

 
   2024   2023 
Net income attributable to the Greenland Technologies Holding Corporation and subsidiaries  $2,502,203   $1,446,975 
Weighted average basic and diluted computation shares outstanding:          
Weighted average shares used in basic computation   13,594,530    12,978,504 
Diluted effect of stock options and warrants   
    
 
Weighted average shares used in diluted computation   13,594,530    12,978,504 
Basic and diluted net income per share
  $0.18   $0.11 

 

For the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, 4,530,000 shares underlying outstanding warrants to an investor were excluded from the calculation of diluted loss per share as the warrants were anti-dilutive. The exercise price of the warrants is higher than the average price of ordinary shares during the periods, so the warrants is “out-of-the-money” and result in an anti-dilutive effect on earnings per share.

 

NOTE 20 – GEOGRAPHICAL SALES AND SEGMENTS

 

All of the Company’s operations are considered by the chief operating decision maker to be aggregated in one reportable operating segment.

 

Information for the Company’s sales by geographical area for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 are as follows:

 

   For three months ended
March 31,
 
   2024   2023 
Domestic Sales  $22,524,060   $22,129,222 
International Sales   199,531    20,138 
Total  $22,723,591   $22,149,360 

 

F-28

 

  

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 21 – INCOME TAXES

 

Income tax expense includes a provision for federal, state and foreign taxes based on the annual estimated effective tax rate applicable to the Company and its subsidiaries, adjusted for items which are considered discrete to the period.

 

The effective tax rates on income before income taxes for the three months ended March 31, 2024 was (5.50)%. The effective tax rate for the three months ended March 31, 2024 was lower than the PRC tax rate of 25.0% primarily due to the China Super R&D deduction.

 

The effective tax rates on income before income taxes for the three months ended March 31, 2023 was 10.77%. The effective tax rate for the three months ended March 31, 2023 was lower than the PRC tax rate of 25.0% primarily due to the China Super R&D deduction.

 

The Company has recorded $0 unrecognized benefit as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively. On the information currently available, the Company does not anticipate a significant increase or decrease to its unrecognized benefit within the next 12 months.

 

NOTE 22 – COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES 

 

Guarantees and pledged collateral for bank loans to other parties: 

 

Pledged collateral for bank loans

 

On June 27, 2022, Zhejiang Zhongchai signed a Maximum Amount Pledge Contract with Bank of Communications Co. LTD., pledging its land use rights and property ownership as security, for a loan facility with a maximum principal amount of US$8.28 million (RMB60.01 million) during the period from June 27, 2022 to June 26, 2027. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the outstanding amount of the short-term bank loan under this pledge contract was nil and nil, respectively. 

 

F-29

 

  

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 22 – COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES (CONTINUED)

 

Facility Leases 

 

The Company has leased premises for its offices under non-cancellable operating leases since May 2021 and its assembly site under non-cancellable operating leases since June 2022. See further discussion in NOTE 16 – LEASES. 

 

Rent expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the terms of the operating leases accordingly and the Company records the difference between cash rent payments and the recognition of rent expense as a deferred rent liability. 

 

The following are the aggregate non-cancellable future minimum lease payments under operating and financing leases as of March 31, 2024: 

 

For the years ending March 31,  Operating
Leases
 
2025  $579,898 
2026   593,454 
2027   610,684 
2028   470,644 
Total lease payments  $2,254,680 

 

NOTE 23 – RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

 

(a) Names and Relationship of Related Parties:

 

    Existing Relationship with the Company
Sinomachinery Holding Limited   Under common control of Peter Zuguang Wang
Cenntro Holding Limited   Controlling shareholder of the Company
Zhejiang Kangchen Biotechnology Co., Ltd.   Under common control of Peter Zuguang Wang
Cenntro Smart Manufacturing Tech. Co., Ltd.   Under common control of Peter Zuguang Wang
Zhejiang Zhonggong Machinery Co., Ltd.   Under common control of Peter Zuguang Wang
Xinchang County Jiuxin Investment Management Partnership (LP)   Under control of Mr. Mengxing He, the General Manger and one of the directors of Zhejiang Zhongchai
Zhuhai Hengzhong Industrial Investment Fund (Limited Partnership)   Under common control of Peter Zuguang Wang
Hangzhou Cenntro Autotech Co., Limited   Under common control of Peter Zuguang Wang
Peter Zuguang Wang   Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Company
Hangzhou Jiuru Economic Information Consulting Co. Ltd   One of the directors of a former subsidiary of the Company, Shanghai Hengyu Business Management Consulting Co., Ltd., which was dissolved on July 10, 2023
Xinchang County Jiuhe Investment Management Partnership (LP)   Under control of Mr. Mengxing He, the General Manger and one of the directors of Zhejiang Zhongchai/Non-controlling interest of Zhejiang Zhongchai
Cenntro Automotive Corporation   Under common control of Peter Zuguang Wang

 

F-30

 

  

GREENLAND TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

NOTE 23 – RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS (CONTINUED) 

 

(b) Summary of Balances with Related Parties:

 

   As of 
   March 31,
2024
   December 31,
2023
 
Due to related parties:          
Cenntro Smart Manufacturing Tech. Co., Ltd.1  $2,562   $2,606 
Zhuhai Hengzhong Industrial Investment Fund (Limited Partnership)2   94,442    94,442 
Cenntro Holding Limited)3   1,341,627    1,341,627 
Hangzhou Jiuru Economic Information Consulting Co. Ltd4   190,000    190,000 
Peter Zuguang Wang5   2,392,961    2,392,961 
Total  $4,021,592   $4,021,636 

 

All balances of due to related parties as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 were unsecured, interest-free and had no fixed terms of repayments.

 

The balance of due to related parties as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 consisted of:

 

1Employee wages paid by Cenntro Smart Manufacturing Tech. Co., Ltd. on the Company’s behalf;

 

2Temporary borrowings from Zhuhai Hengzhong Industrial Investment Fund (Limited Partnership);

 

3Total dividend payment of $7.6 million declared by Zhongchai Holding to Cenntro Holding Limited. As of December 31, 2019, the balance was $1.34 million, and no further payments had been made since then;

 

4Consulting fees payable to Hangzhou Jiuru Economic Information Consulting Co. Ltd; and

 

5Payable to Peter Zuguang Wang for capital reduction due to the dissolution of Shanghai Hengyu Business Management Consulting Co., Ltd. on July 10, 2023.

 

   As of 
   March 31,   December 31, 
   2024   2023 
Due from related parties-current:          
Zhuhai Hengzhong Industrial Investment Fund (Limited Partnership)   228,311    225,927 
Total  $228,311   $225,927 

 

The balance of due from related parties as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 consisted of:

 

Other receivable from Zhuhai Hengzhong Industrial Investment Fund (Limited Partnership) was $0.23 million and $0.23 million as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively. It’s a loan with annual interest rate of 4.785%.

 

NOTE 24 – SUBSEQUENT EVENTS

 

Management has evaluated subsequent events through the date that the financial statements were available to be issued, which is May 15, 2024. All subsequent events requiring recognition as of March 31, 2024 have been incorporated into these financial statements and there are no other subsequent events that require disclosure in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 855.  

 

F-31

 

 

ITEM 2. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATION

 

The following discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations relates to the operations and financial condition reported in the consolidated financial statements of the Company thereto, which appear elsewhere in this quarterly report on Form 10-Q, and should be read in conjunction with such financial statements and related notes included in this quarterly report on Form 10-Q. Except for the historical information contained herein, the following discussion, as well as other information in this report, contain “forward-looking statements,” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and are subject to the “safe harbor” created by those sections. Actual results and the timing of the events may differ materially from those contained in these forward-looking statements due to many factors, including those discussed in the “Forward-Looking Statements” set forth elsewhere in this quarterly report on Form 10-Q.

  

Overview

 

The Company was incorporated on December 28, 2017 as a British Virgin Islands company with limited liability. The Company was incorporated as a blank check company for the purpose of effecting a merger, capital stock exchange, asset acquisition, stock purchase, recapitalization, reorganization or similar business combination with one or more target businesses. Following the Business Combination (as described below) in October 2019, the Company changed its name from Greenland Acquisition Corporation to Greenland Technologies Holding Corporation.

 

On July 27, 2018, we consummated our initial public offering of 4,400,000 units, including a partial exercise by the underwriters of their over-allotment option in the amount of 400,000 units. Each unit consisted of one ordinary share, no par value, one warrant to purchase one-half of one ordinary share, and one right to receive one-tenth of one ordinary share upon the consummation of our initial business combination (the “Business Combination”), pursuant to a registration statement on Form S-1. Warrants must be exercised in multiples of two warrants, and each two warrants are exercisable for one ordinary share at an exercise price of $11.50 per share. The units were sold in our initial public offering at an offering price of $10.00 per unit, generated $44,000,000 (before underwriting discounts and offering expenses) in gross proceeds.

 

Simultaneously with the consummation of our initial public offering, we completed a private placement of 282,000 units, issued to Greenland Asset Management Corporation (the “the Sponsor”) and Chardan Capital Markets, LLC (“Chardan”), which generated $2,820,000 in gross proceeds. We also sold to Chardan (and its designees), for $100, an option to purchase up to 240,000 units exercisable at $11.50 per unit (or an aggregate exercise price of $2,760,000) commencing on consummation of the Business Combination. The unit purchase option may be exercised for cash or on a cashless basis, at the holder’s option, and expired on July 24, 2023. On February 18, 2021, Chardan exercised its option to purchase 120,000 units.

 

On October 24, 2019, we consummated the Business Combination with Zhongchai Holding (Hong Kong) Limited, a holding company formed under the laws of Hong Kong on April 23, 2009 (“Zhongchai Holding”) following a special meeting, where the shareholders of Greenland considered and approved, among other matters, a proposal to adopt and entered into that certain Share Exchange Agreement dated as of July 12, 2019, among (i) Greenland, (ii) Zhongchai Holding, (iii) the Sponsor in the capacity as the Purchaser Representative, and (iv) Cenntro Holding Limited, the sole member of Zhongchai Holding (the “Share Exchange Agreement”) that allowed Greenland to acquire from Cenntro Holding Limited all of the issued and outstanding equity interests of Zhongchai Holding in exchange for 7,500,000 newly issued ordinary shares, no par value of Greenland, issued to Cenntro Holding Limited. As a result, Cenntro Holding Limited became the then controlling shareholder of Greenland, and Zhongchai Holding became a directly and wholly owned subsidiary of Greenland. The Business Combination was accounted for as a reverse merger effected by a share exchange, wherein Zhongchai Holding is considered the acquirer for accounting and financial reporting purposes.

  

2

 

 

In connection with the Business Combination, all the outstanding rights of the Company were converted into 468,200 ordinary shares on a one-tenth (1/10) ordinary share per right basis if holders of the rights elected to convert their rights into the underlying ordinary shares.

 

On December 17, 2019, the Company’s warrants, which were trading under the ticker symbol “GTECW,” were delisted from the Nasdaq Capital Market by the Nasdaq Listing Qualifications Staff.

 

On January 14, 2020, HEVI Corp. (“HEVI”), formerly known as Greenland Technologies Corp., was incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware. HEVI is a 100% owned subsidiary of Greenland. HEVI focuses on the production and sale of electric industrial equipment, including electric industrial vehicles, for the North American market.

 

Greenland serves as the parent company to Zhongchai Holding. Through Zhongchai Holding and its subsidiaries, Greenland develops and manufactures traditional transmission products for material handling machineries and electric industrial heavy equipment, including electric industrial vehicles.

 

Through its PRC subsidiaries, Greenland offers transmission products, which are key components for forklift trucks used in manufacturing and logistic applications, such as factories, workshops, warehouses, fulfilment centers, shipyards, and seaports. Forklifts play an important role in the logistic systems of many companies across different industries in China and globally. Generally, industries with the largest demand for forklifts include the transportation, warehousing logistics, electrical machinery, and automobile industries. Greenland’s revenue increased from approximately $22.15 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023 to $22.72 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024. The increase in revenue was primarily the result of an increase in the Company’s sales volume, driven by increasing market demand for the three months ended March 31, 2024. Nevertheless, based on the revenues for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, Greenland believes that it is one of the major developers and manufacturers of transmission products for small and medium-sized forklift trucks in China.

 

Greenland’s transmission products are used in 1-ton to 15-tons forklift trucks, some with mechanical shift and some with automatic shift. Greenland sells these transmission products directly to forklift-truck manufacturers. For the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, Greenland sold an aggregate of 41,866 and 36,841 sets of transmission products, respectively, to more than 100 forklift manufacturers in the PRC.

 

There is increasing demand for electric industrial heavy equipment powered by sustainable energy in order to reduce air pollution and lower carbon emissions. Utilizing Greenland’s expertise in manufacturing and R&D, it established HEVI in January 2020 to create clean and sustainable products and services in the heavy industrial equipment industry that help organizations pursue a carbon neutral operation. HEVI designs, develops, and manufactures electric heavy industrial equipment and accessories and sells them directly to the end consumers in various markets in the United States. HEVI’s product line available for purchase includes the GEL-5000 all-electric lithium 5.0-ton rated load wheeled front loader, GEL-1800 all-electric lithium 1.8-ton rated load wheeled front loader, the GEX-8000 all-electric lithium 8.0-ton rated load excavator, and the GEF-series of electric lithium forklifts. HEVI also introduced mobile DC battery chargers to support a growing market of EV applications requiring DC charging capabilities in the North America market. These products are available for purchase in the U.S. market. In August 2022, HEVI launched a 54,000 square foot industrial electric vehicle assembly site in Baltimore, Maryland to support local assembly, services and distribution of its product line.

 

Recent Developments 

 

On February 14, 2024, the Company issued a press release announcing its intent, as approved by its board of directors, to explore a separation of its electric industrial vehicles and drivetrain systems segments into two independent, publicly-traded companies by spinning off its drivetrain systems business. After the proposed spin-off, Greenland would be solely comprised of the Company’s current industrial electric vehicle business under its HEVI brand. On March 26, 2024, the Company entered into a share exchange agreement with Greenland Holding Enterprises Inc. and Zhongchai Holding (the “2024 Share Exchange Agreement”). Pursuant to the 2024 Share Exchange Agreement, Greenland Holding Enterprises Inc. issued 100 shares of common stock to the Company, par value $0.01 per share, in exchange for 100% of the equity interest of Zhongchai Holding.

 

3

 

 

Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Our Operations and Financial Performance 

 

The COVID-19 pandemic has severely affected global economy. In an effort to contain the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, in the fiscal years ended December 31, 2021 and 2022, China and many other countries took precautionary measures, such as imposing travel restrictions, quarantining individuals infected with or suspected of being infected with COVID-19, encouraging or requiring people to work remotely, and canceling public activities, among others.

 

Since 2021, a few waves of COVID-19 infections emerged in various regions of China, and in response, the Chinese government implemented certain anti-COVID measures and protocols. Chinese industries have gradually resumed businesses since the Chinese government lifted its COVID-19 protocols and measures in December 2022. The COVID-19 pandemic had a limited impact on our financial condition and results of operations in the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023.

 

The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic may continue to affect our operations and financial performance in the future will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted at this time.

 

Results of Operations

 

For the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023

 

Overview

 

   For the three months ended March 31 
   2024   2023   Change   Variance 
                     
Revenues  $22,723,591   $22,149,360   $574,231    2.6%
Cost of Goods Sold   17,076,522    16,625,930    450,592    2.7%
Gross Profit   5,647,069    5,523,430    123,639    2.2%
Selling expenses   549,496    387,485    162,011    41.8%
General and administrative expenses   2,183,429    1,641,904    541,525    33.0%
Research and development expenses   987,724    1,119,891    (132,167)   (11.8)%
Total Operating Expenses   3,720,649    3,149,280    571,369    18.1%
Income from operations   1,926,420    2,374,150    (447,730)   (18.9)%
Interest income   169,213    30,393    138,820    456.7%
Interest expenses   (43,840)   (66,493)   22,653    (34.1)%
Change in fair value of the warrant liability   1,035,306    -    1,035,306    100.0%
Other income   296,148    417,382    (121,234)   (29.0)%
Income before income tax   3,383,247    2,755,432    627,815    22.8%
Income tax   (186,001)   296,858    (482,859)   (162.7)%
Net income   3,569,248    2,458,574    1,110,674    45.2%

 

4

 

 

Components of Results of Operations

 

   For the three months ended March 31 
Component of Results of Operations  2024   2023 
     
Revenues  $22,723,591   $22,149,360 
Cost of Goods Sold   17,076,522    16,625,930 
Gross Profit   5,647,069    5,523,430 
Operating Expenses   3,720,649    3,149,280 
Net Income   3,569,248    2,458,574 

 

Revenue

 

Greenland’s revenue was approximately $22.72 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024, representing an increase of approximately $0.57 million, or 2.6%, as compared to that of approximately $22.15 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023. The increase in revenue was primarily a result of the increase in the Company’s sales volume, driven by increasing market demand for transmission products for the three months ended March 31, 2024. On an RMB basis, our revenue for the three months ended March 31, 2024 increased by approximately 7.8% as compared to that for the three months ended March 31, 2023.

  

Cost of Goods Sold

 

Greenland’s cost of goods sold consists primarily of material costs, freight charges, purchasing and receiving costs, inspection costs, internal transfer costs, wages, employee compensation, amortization, depreciation and related costs, which are directly attributable to the Company’s manufacturing activities. The write down of inventory using the net realizable value impairment test is also recorded in cost of goods sold. The total cost of goods sold was approximately $17.08 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024, representing an increase by approximately $0.45 million, or 2.7%, as compared to that of approximately $16.63 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023. Cost of goods sold increased due to the increase in our sales volume.

 

Gross Profit

 

Greenland’s gross profit was approximately $5.65 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024, representing an increase by approximately $0.13 million, or 2.2%, as compared to that of approximately $5.52 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023. For the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, Greenland’s gross margins were approximately 24.9% and 24.9%, respectively. The increase in gross profit in the three months ended March 31, 2024 compared to the three months ended March 31, 2023 was primarily due to the increase in our sales volume.

 

5

 

 

Operating Expenses

 

Greenland’s operating expenses consist of selling expenses, general and administrative expenses and research and development expenses.

 

Selling Expenses

 

Selling expenses mainly comprise of operating expenses such as sales staff payroll, traveling expenses, and transportation expenses. Our selling expenses were approximately $0.55 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024, representing an increase of approximately $0.16 million, or 41.8%, as compared to approximately $0.39 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023. The increase was mainly due to an increase in the shipping expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2024.

 

General and Administrative Expenses

 

General and administrative expenses comprise of management and staff salaries, employee benefits, depreciation for office facility and office furniture and equipment, travel and entertainment expenses, legal and accounting fees, financial consulting fees, and other office expenses. General and administrative expenses were approximately $2.18 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024, representing an increase of approximately $0.54 million, or 33.0%, as compared to that of approximately $1.64 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023. The increase in general and administrative expenses was mainly due to the increased in allowance for credit losses and the increase in staff salary for the three months ended March 31, 2024, as compared to the three months ended March 31, 2023.

 

Research and Development (R&D) Expenses

 

R&D expenses consist of R&D personnel compensation, costs of materials used in R&D projects, and depreciation costs for research-related equipment. R&D expenses were approximately $0.99 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024, representing a decrease of approximately $0.13 million, or 11.8%, as compared to that of approximately $1.12 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023. Such decrease was primarily attributable to a significant decrease in the Company’s R&D activities during the three months ended March 31, 2024.

 

Income from Operations

 

Income from operations for the three months ended March 31, 2024 was approximately $1.93 million, representing a decrease of approximately $0.44 million, as compared to that of approximately $2.37 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023.

 

Interest Income and Interest Expenses

 

Greenland’s interest income was approximately $0.17 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024, representing an increase of approximately $0.14 million, or 456.7%, as compared to that of approximately $0.03 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023. The increase in interest income was because more cash was deposited in banks during the three months ended March 31, 2024 as compared to the three months ended March 31, 2023.

 

Greenland’s interest expenses were approximately $0.04 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024, representing a decrease of approximately $0.02 million, or 34.1%, as compared to that of approximately $0.06 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023. The decrease was primarily due to a decrease of our short-term loans for the three months ended March 31, 2024, compared to those for the three months ended March 31, 2023.

 

Other Income

 

Greenland’s other income was approximately $0.30 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024, representing a decrease of approximately $0.12 million, or 29.0%, as compared to approximately $0.42 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023. The decrease was primarily due to a decrease in grant income for the three months ended March 31, 2024, compared to those for the three months ended March 31, 2023.

 

6

 

 

Income Taxes

 

Greenland’s income tax was approximately $(0.19) million for the three months ended March 31, 2024, as compared to that of approximately $0.30 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023.

 

Zhejiang Zhongchai obtained a “high-tech enterprise” status near the end of the fiscal year of 2022. Such status allows Zhejiang Zhongchai to enjoy a reduced statutory income tax rate of 15%, rather than the standard PRC corporate income tax rate of 25%. Income tax for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 were calculated based on a rate of 15%. The “high-tech enterprise” status is reevaluated by relevant Chinese government agencies every three years. Zhejiang Zhongchai’s current “high-tech enterprise” will be reevaluated near the end of 2025.

 

Greenland’s other PRC subsidiaries are subject to different income tax rates. Hangzhou Greenland, the wholly owned subsidiary of Zhongchai Holding, is subject to the 25% standard income tax rate Greenland is a holding company registered in the British Virgin Islands and is not subject to tax on income or capital gains under the current British Virgin Islands law. In addition, upon payment of dividends to its shareholders, the Company will not be subject to any British Virgin Islands withholding tax.

 

On January 14, 2020, Greenland established HEVI, its wholly owned subsidiary in the state of Delaware. HEVI promotes sales of sustainable alternative products for the heavy industrial equipment industry, including electric industrial vehicles, in the North American market. On December 22, 2017, the U.S. federal government enacted the 2017 Tax Act. The 2017 Tax Act includes a number of changes in existing tax law impacting businesses, including the transition tax, a one-time deemed repatriation of cumulative undistributed foreign earnings and a permanent reduction in the U.S. federal statutory rate from 35% to 21%, effective on January 1, 2018. ASC 740 requires companies to recognize the effect of tax law changes in the period of enactment, and accordingly, the effects must be recognized on companies’ calendar year-end financial statements, even though the effective date for most provisions is January 1, 2018. Since HEVI was established in 2020, the one-time transition tax did not have any impact on the Company’s tax provision and there was no undistributed accumulated earnings and profits as of March 31, 2024.

 

On March 26, 2024, the Company entered into a share exchange agreement with Greenland Holding Enterprises Inc. and Zhongchai Holding (the “2024 Share Exchange Agreement”). Pursuant to the 2024 Share Exchange Agreement, Greenland Holding Enterprises Inc. issued 100 shares of common stock to the Company, par value $0.01 per share, representing all issued and outstanding share capital of Greenland Holding Enterprises Inc., in exchange for 100% of the equity interest of Zhongchai Holding. Greenland Holding Enterprises Inc. is a holding company registered on August 28, 2023 in the State of Delaware with no material operations. Since Greenland Holding Enterprises Inc. was established in 2023, the one-time transition tax did not have any impact on the Company’s tax provision and there was no undistributed accumulated earnings and profits as of March 31, 2024.

 

Net Income

 

Our net income was approximately $3.57 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024, representing an increase of approximately $1.11 million, as compared to that of approximately $2.46 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023.

 

Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

Greenland is a holding company incorporated in the British Virgin Islands. Current PRC regulations permit our PRC subsidiaries to pay dividends to us only out of their accumulated profits, if any, determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. In addition, our PRC subsidiaries are required to set aside at least 10% of their respective accumulated profits each year, if any, to fund certain reserve funds until the total amount set aside reaches 50% of their respective registered capital. Our PRC subsidiaries may also allocate a portion of their after-tax profits based on PRC accounting standards to employee welfare and bonus funds at their discretion. These reserves are not distributable as cash dividends.

 

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We have funded working capital and other capital requirements primarily by equity contributions, cash flow from operations, short-term bank loans and bank acceptance notes, and long-term bank loans. Cash is required primarily to purchase raw materials, repay debts and pay salaries, office expenses, income taxes and other operating expenses.

 

For the three months ended March 31, 2024, our PRC subsidiary, Zhejiang Zhongchai, paid off approximately $0.28 million in bank loan, approximately $0.70 million in lend to third parties, and maintained $15.99 million cash on hand. We plan to maintain the current debt structure and rely on governmentally supported loans with lower costs, if necessary.

 

Government subsidies mainly consist of an incentive granted by the Chinese government to encourage transformation of fixed assets in China and other miscellaneous subsidies from the Chinese government. Government subsidies are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the subsidy will be received and all conditions be completed. Total government subsidies recorded under long-term liabilities were $1.45 million and $1.53 million as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively.

 

The Company currently plans to fund its operations mainly through cash flow from its operations, renewal of bank borrowings, additional equity financing, and continuation of financial support from its shareholders and affiliates controlled by its principal shareholders, if necessary. The Company might implement a stricter policy on sales to less creditworthy customers and plans to continue to improve its collection efforts on accounts with outstanding balances. The Company is actively working with customers and suppliers and expects to fully collect the remaining balance.

 

We believe that the Company has sufficient cash, even with uncertainty in the Company’s manufacturing and sale of electric industrial heavy equipment in the future and decline on sale of transmission products. However, our capital contribution from existing funding sources, to operate for the next 12 months will be sufficient. We remain confident and expect to continue to generate positive cash flow from our operations.

 

We may need additional cash resources in the future, if the Company experiences failure in collecting account receivables, changes in business condition, changes in financial condition, or other developments. We may also need additional cash resources, if the Company wishes to pursue opportunities for investment, acquisition, strategic cooperation, or other similar actions. If the Company’s management and its board of directors determine that the cash required for specific corporate activities exceed Greenland’s cash and cash equivalents on hand, the Company may issue debt or equity securities to raise cash. 

 

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Historically, we have expended considerable resources on building a new factory and paid off a considerable amount of debt, resulting in less available cash. However, we anticipate that our cash flow will continue to improve for the remainder of fiscal year 2024. More specifically, Zhejiang Zhongchai has completed the construction of a new factory, and our PRC subsidiaries have received COVID-19 related government subsidies. Furthermore, Zhejiang Zhongchai pledged the deed of its new factory as a collateral to banks in order to obtain additional loans, refinance expiring loans, restructure short-term loans, and fund other working capital needs upon acceptable terms to Greenland.

 

Cash and Cash Equivalents

 

Cash equivalents refers to all highly liquid investments purchased with original maturity of three months or less. As of March 31, 2024, Greenland had approximately $15.99 million of cash and cash equivalents, representing a decrease of approximately $7.00 million, or 30.44%, as compared to approximately $22.98 million as of December 31, 2023. The decrease of cash and cash equivalents was mainly due to an increase in notes receivables and fixed deposit, as compared to that as of December 31, 2023.

 

Restricted Cash

 

Restricted cash represents the amount held by a bank as security for bank acceptance notes and therefore is not available for use until the bank acceptance notes are fulfilled or expired, which typically takes less than twelve months. As of March 31, 2024, Greenland had approximately $3.85 million of restricted cash, representing a decrease of approximately $1.36 million, or 26.07%, as compared to that of approximately $5.21 million as of December 31, 2023. The decrease of restricted cash was due to a decrease of mortgaged assets.

 

Accounts Receivable

 

As of March 31, 2024, Greenland had approximately $22.58 million of accounts receivables, an increase of approximately $5.23 million, or 30.14%, as compared to approximately $17.35 million as of December 31, 2023. The increase in accounts receivables was due to the increase in our sales volume and our slowed-down efforts in receivables collections.

 

Greenland recorded approximately $1.42 million and $0.87 million of allowance for expected credit losses as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively. Greenland conducted an aging analysis of each customer’s delinquent payments to determine whether allowance for expected credit losses is adequate. In establishing the allowance for expected credit losses, Greenland considers historical experience, economic environment, and expected collectability of past due receivables. An estimate of expected credit losses is recorded when collection of the full amount is no longer probable. When bad debts are identified, such debts are written off against the allowance for expected credit losses. Greenland will continuously assess its expected credit losses based on the credit history of and relationships with its customers on a regular basis to determine whether its allowance for expected credit losses on its accounts receivables is adequate. Greenland believes that its collection policies are generally in line with the transmissions industry’s standard in the PRC.

 

Due from Related Party

 

Due from related party was $0.23 million and $0.23 million as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively. Other receivable from Zhuhai Hengzhong Industrial Investment Fund (Limited Partnership) was $0.23 million and $0.23 million as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively, representing a loan with an annual interest rate of 4.785%.

 

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Notes Receivable

 

As of March 31, 2024, Greenland had approximately $32.13 million of notes receivables, which Greenland expects to collect within the next twelve months. The increase was approximately $4.99 million, or 18.39%, as compared to approximately $27.14 million as of December 31, 2023. 

 

Working Capital 

 

Our working capital was approximately $23.56 million as of March 31, 2024, as compared to $27.27 million as of December 31, 2023. The decrease in working capital of $3.7 million was primarily contributed to an increase in fixed deposit.

 

Cash Flow

 

  

For the Three Months Ended

March 31,

 
   2024   2023 
     
Net cash (used in) provided by operating activities  $(8,422,330)  $3,756,318 
Net cash (used in) provided by investing activities  $(1,880,587)  $195,216 
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities  $2,340,022   $(3,464,491)
Net (decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash  $(7,962,895)  $487,043 
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents  $(391,202)  $44,518 
Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of year  $28,189,387   $19,729,056 
Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of year  $19,835,290   $20,260,617 

 

Operating Activities 

 

Greenland’s net cash provided by (used in) operating activities were approximately $(8.42) million and $3.76 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively.

 

For the three months ended March 31, 2024, the main sources of cash outflow from operating activities were accounts receivable, notes receivable, and other current and noncurrent assets, with each amounted to approximately $5.54 million, $5.47 million and $6.12 million, respectively. The main causes of cash inflow were changes in net income and accounts payable, with each amounted to approximately $3.57 million and $6.02 million, respectively.

 

For the three months ended March 31, 2023, the main sources of cash inflow from operating activities were net income, change in accounts payable, and other current and noncurrent assets, with each amounted to approximately $2.46 million, $3.51 million and $2.87 million, respectively. The main causes of cash outflow were changes in accounts receivables and other current liabilities, with each amounted to approximately $5.24 million and $0.57 million, respectively.

 

Investing Activities

 

Net cash used in investing activities resulted in cash outflow of approximately $1.88 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024. Cash used in investing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2024 was mainly due to approximately $1.19 million used for purchases of long-term assets and approximately $0.70 million loaned to third parties.

 

Net cash provided by investing activities resulted in a cash inflow of approximately $0.20 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023. Cash provided by investing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2023 was mainly due to $0.26 million in proceeds from government grants for construction, offset by approximately $0.02 million used for purchases of long-term assets and approximately $0.05 million used for investment in a joint venture.

 

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Financing Activities

 

Net cash provided by financing activities resulted a cash inflow of approximately $2.34 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024, which was mainly attributable to approximately $5.56 million in proceeds from short-term bank loans. Such amounts were further offset by approximately $0.28 million in repayment of short-term bank loans and approximately $2.95 million change in notes payable.

 

Net cash used in financing activities resulted a cash outflow of approximately $3.46 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023, which was mainly attributable to approximately $2.48 million in repayment of loans to related parties and approximately $3.18 million in repayment of notes payable. Such amounts were further offset by proceeds from short-term bank loans for approximately $1.17 million and proceeds from third parties for approximately $1.46 million.

 

Credit Risk

 

Credit risk is one of the most significant risks for Greenland’s business. Accounts receivable are typically unsecured and derived from revenues earned from customers, thereby exposing Greenland to credit risk. Credit risk is controlled by the application of credit approvals, limits, and monitoring procedures. Greenland identifies credit risk collectively based on industry, geography, and customer type. This information is monitored regularly by the Company’s management. In measuring the credit risk of sales to customers, Greenland mainly reflects the “probability of default” by the customer on its contractual obligations and considers the current financial position of the customer and the exposures to the customer and its future development.

 

Liquidity Risk

 

Greenland is exposed to liquidity risk when it is unable to provide sufficient capital resources and liquidity to meet its commitments and/or business needs. Liquidity risk is managed by the application of financial position analysis to test if Greenland is in danger of liquidity issues and also by application of monitoring procedures to constantly monitor its conditions and movements. When necessary, Greenland resorts to other financial institutions to obtain additional short-term funding to meet the liquidity shortage.

 

Inflation Risk

 

Greenland is also exposed to inflation risk. Inflationary factors, such as increases in raw material and overhead costs, could impair Greenland’s operating results. Although Greenland does not believe that inflation has had a material impact on its financial position or results of operations to date, a high rate of inflation in the future may have an adverse effect on its ability to maintain current levels of gross margin and operating expenses as a percentage of sales revenues if the selling prices of its products do not increase with such increased costs.

 

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

 

We prepare our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP. In applying accounting principles, it is often required to use estimates. These estimates consider the facts, circumstances and information available, and may be based on subjective inputs, assumptions and information known and unknown to us. Material changes in certain of the estimates that we use could potentially affect, by a material amount, our consolidated financial position and results of operations. Although results may vary, we believe our estimates are reasonable and appropriate. See Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements included in “Item 1 - Financial Statements (Unaudited)” for a summary of our significant accounting policies. The following describes certain of our significant accounting policies that involve more subjective and complex judgments where the effect on our consolidated financial position and operating performance could be material.

 

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Revenue Recognition

 

In accordance with ASC Topic 606, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers,” the Company recognizes revenues when goods or services are transferred to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration which the Company expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. In determining when and how revenues are recognized from contracts with customers, the Company performs the following five-step analysis: (i) identification of contract with customer; (ii) determination of performance obligations; (iii) measurement of the transaction price; (iv) allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations, and (v) recognition of revenues when (or as) the Company satisfies each performance obligation. The Company derives revenues from the processing, distribution and sale of its products. The Company recognizes its revenues net of value added taxes (“VAT”). The Company is subject to VAT which had been levied at the rate of 17% on the invoiced value of sales until April 30, 2018, after which date the rate was reduced to 16%. VAT rate was further reduced to 13% starting from April 1, 2019. Output VAT is borne by customers in addition to the invoiced value of sales and input VAT is borne by the Company in addition to the invoiced value of purchases to the extent not refunded for export sales.

 

Revenues are recognized at a point in time once the Company has determined that the customer has obtained control over the product. Control is typically deemed to have been transferred to the customer when the performance obligation is fulfilled, usually at the time of customers’ acceptance or consumption, at the net sales price (transaction price) and each of the criteria under ASC 606 have been met. Contract terms may require the Company to deliver the finished goods to the customers’ location or the customer may pick up the finished goods at the Company’s factory. International sales are recognized when shipment clears customs and leaves the port.

 

The Company adopted ASC 606 on January 1, 2018, using the transition method of Modified-Retrospective Method (“MRM”). The adoption of ASC 606 had no impact on the Company’s beginning balance of retained earnings.

 

The Company’s contracts are all short-term in nature with a contract term of one year or less. Receivables are recorded when the Company has an unconditional right to consideration.

 

Business Combination

 

On October 24, 2019, we consummated our Business Combination with Zhongchai Holding following a special meeting of the shareholders, where the shareholders of Greenland considered and approved, among other matters, a proposal to adopt and entered into the Share Exchange Agreement, dated as of July 12, 2019, among (i) Greenland, (ii) Zhongchai Holding, (iii) the Sponsor in the capacity as the Purchaser Representative, and (iv) Cenntro Holding Limited, the sole member of Zhongchai Holding.

 

Pursuant to the Share Exchange Agreement, Greenland acquired from Cenntro Holding Limited all of the issued and outstanding equity interests of Zhongchai Holding in exchange for 7,500,000 newly issued ordinary shares, no par value of Greenland, to Cenntro Holding Limited. As a result, Cenntro Holding Limited became the then controlling shareholder of Greenland, and Zhongchai Holding became a directly and wholly owned subsidiary of Greenland. The Business Combination was accounted for as a reverse merger effected by a share exchange, wherein Zhongchai Holding is considered the acquirer for accounting and financial reporting purposes.

 

Pursuant to that certain finder agreement with Hanyi Zhou dated May 29, 2019 (the “Finder Agreement”), 50,000 newly issued ordinary shares issued to Hanyi Zhou as a finder fee for the Business Combination.

 

Inventories

 

Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value, which is based on estimated selling prices less any further costs expected to be incurred for completion and disposal. Cost of raw materials is calculated using the weighted average method and is based on purchase cost. Work-in-progress and finished goods costs are determined using the weighted average method and comprise direct materials, direct labor and an appropriate proportion of overhead.

 

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Income Taxes

 

The Company accounts for income taxes following the liability method pursuant to FASB ASC 740 “Income Taxes”. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the difference between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates that will be in effect in the period in which the differences are expected to reverse. The Company records a valuation allowance to offset deferred tax assets if, based on the weight of available evidence, it is more-likely-than-not that some portion, or all, of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The effect on deferred taxes of a change in tax rate is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.

 

The Company also follows FASB ASC 740, which addresses the determination of whether tax benefits claimed or expected to be claimed on a tax return should be recorded in the financial statements. The Company may recognize the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the financial statements from such a position should be measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than fifty percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. ASC 740 also provides guidance on recognition, classification, interest and penalties on income taxes, accounting in interim periods and requires increased disclosures. As of March 31, 2024, the Company did not have any liability for unrecognized tax benefits. It is the Company’s policy to include penalties and interest expense related to income taxes as a component of other expense and interest expense, respectively, as necessary. The Company’s historical tax years will remain open for examination by the local authorities until the statute of limitations has passed.

 

Off Balance Sheet Arrangements

 

None.

 

ITEM 3. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK.

 

The Company is not required to provide the information required by this item as it is a smaller reporting company.

 

ITEM 4. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES.

 

Disclosure controls, as defined under Rule 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) promulgated under the Exchange Act, are procedures that are designed with the objective of ensuring that information required to be disclosed in our reports filed under the Exchange Act, such as this report, is recorded, processed, summarized, and reported within the time specified in the SEC’s rules and forms. Disclosure controls are also designed with the objective of ensuring that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.

 

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Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures

 

As of March 31, 2024, we carried out an evaluation, under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our chief executive officer and chief financial officer, of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures, as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Based upon such evaluation, our chief executive officer and chief financial officer concluded that, as of the end of the period covered by this report, our disclosure controls and procedures were ineffective. Such conclusion is based on the presence of the following material weakness in internal control over financial reporting as of March 31, 2024:

 

Accounting and Financial Reporting Personnel Material Weakness - As noted in Item 9A of our annual report on Form 10-K for the preceding fiscal year, management concluded that in light of a lack of sufficient and competent financial reporting and accounting personnel with appropriate knowledge of U.S. GAAP and SEC reporting requirements to prepare consolidated financial statements and related disclosures in accordance with U.S. GAAP and SEC reporting requirements, we did not maintain effective controls and did not implement adequate and proper supervisory review to ensure that significant internal control deficiencies can be detected or prevented.

 

As a result, the Company has developed a remedial plan to strengthen its accounting and financial reporting functions. To strengthen the Company’s internal control over financial reporting, the Company is currently implementing the following remedial actions:

 

  developing and formalizing of key accounting and financial reporting policies and procedures;

 

  recruiting more financial reporting and accounting personnel who have adequate U.S. GAAP knowledge;

 

  training key position staff by U.S. accountant with U.S. corporate accounting experiences, and gaining additional knowledge and professional skills about SEC regulations and U.S. GAAP;

  

  planning to acquire additional resources to strengthen the financial reporting function and set up a financial and system control framework; and

 

  establishing effective oversight and clarifying reporting requirements for non-recurring and complex transactions to ensure consolidated financial statements and related disclosures are accurate, complete and in compliance with U.S. GAAP and SEC reporting requirements.

 

Inherent limitation on the effectiveness of internal control

 

The effectiveness of any system of internal control over financial reporting, including ours, is subject to inherent limitations, including the exercise of judgment in designing, implementing, operating, and evaluating the controls and procedures, and the inability to eliminate misconduct completely. Accordingly, any system of internal control over financial reporting, including ours, no matter how well designed and operated, can only provide reasonable, not absolute assurances. In addition, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate. We intend to continue to monitor and upgrade our internal controls as necessary or appropriate for our business but cannot assure you that such improvements will be sufficient to provide us with effective internal control over financial reporting.

 

Notwithstanding the material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, the consolidated unaudited financial statements included in this Quarter Report on Form 10-Q fairly present, in all material respects, our financial position, results of operations and cash flows for the periods presented in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

 

Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

 

During the most recently completed fiscal quarter, there has been no change in our internal control over financial reporting that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

 

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PART II - OTHER INFORMATION

 

ITEM 1. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS.

 

Management is not aware of any legal proceedings contemplated by any governmental authority or any other party involving us or our properties. As of the date of this Quarterly Report, no director, officer or affiliate is (i) a party adverse to us in any legal proceeding, or (ii) has an adverse interest to us in any legal proceedings. Management is not aware of any other legal proceedings pending or that have been threatened against us or our properties.

 

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS.

 

Summary of Risk Factors

 

An investment in our ordinary shares is subject to a number of risks, including risks related to our business and industry, risks related to our corporate structure, risks related to doing business in China and risks related to our ordinary shares. You should carefully consider all of the information in this Report before making an investment in the ordinary shares. The following list summarizes some, but not all, of these risks. Please read the information in this section for a more thorough description of these and other risks.

 

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

 

For more detailed discussions of the following risks, see “Risk Factors—Risks Related to our Business and Industry” on pages 18 through 24.

 

  Our subsidiaries’ business operations are cash intensive, and our subsidiaries’ business could be adversely affected if we fail to maintain sufficient levels of liquidity and working capital;

 

  We grant relatively long payment terms for accounts receivable which can adversely affect our cash flow;

 

  Our subsidiaries face short lead-times for delivery of products to customers. Failure to meet delivery deadlines could result in the loss of customers and damage to our reputation and goodwill;

 

  Our subsidiaries face intense competition, and if we are unable to compete effectively, we may not be able to maintain profitability;

  

  Our revenues are highly dependent on a limited number of customers and the loss of any one of our subsidiaries’ major customers could materially and adversely affect our growth and revenues;

 

  As our subsidiaries expand their operations, they may need to establish a more diverse supplier network for raw materials. The failure to secure a more diverse supplier network could have an adverse effect on our financial condition;

 

  To remain competitive, our subsidiaries are introducing new lines of business, including the production and sale of electric industrial heavy equipment. If these efforts are not successful, our results of operations may be materially and adversely affected;

 

  New lines of business, including the production and sale of electric industrial heavy equipment, may subject us and our subsidiaries to additional risks;

 

  Volatile steel prices can cause significant fluctuations in our operating results. Our revenues and operating income could decrease if steel prices increase or if our subsidiaries are unable to pass price increases on to their customers; and

 

  We are subject to various risks and uncertainties that may affect our subsidiaries’ ability to procure raw materials.

 

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Risks Related to Doing Business in China

 

For more detailed discussions of the following risks, see “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China” on pages 24 through 35.

 

  Changes in China’s economic, political or social conditions or government policies could have a material adverse effect on our business and operations;

 

  Uncertainties arising from the legal system in China, including uncertainties regarding the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws and the possibility that regulations and rules can change quickly with little advance notice, could hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer our securities, result in a material adverse change to our business operations, and damage our reputation, which could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations and cause our securities to significantly decline in value or become worthless. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—The PRC government exerts substantial influence over the manner in which we must conduct our business activities. If the Chinese government significantly regulates the business operations of our PRC subsidiaries in the future and our PRC subsidiaries are not able to substantially comply with such regulations, our business operations may be materially adversely affected and the value of our ordinary shares may significantly decrease” and “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system could adversely affect us and our PRC subsidiaries”;

 

  The Chinese government may intervene or influence our operations at any time or may exert more control over offerings conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in China-based issuers. Any actions by the Chinese government to exert more oversight and control over offerings that are conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in China-based issuers could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors and cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or become worthless. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—The PRC government exerts substantial influence over the manner in which we must conduct our business activities. If the Chinese government significantly regulates the business operations of our PRC subsidiaries in the future and our PRC subsidiaries are not able to substantially comply with such regulations, our business operations may be materially adversely affected and the value of our ordinary shares may significantly decrease”;
     
  Our future offerings will need to be filed with the CSRC, along with compliance with any other applicable PRC rules, policies and regulations, in connection with any future offering of our securities. Any failure to filing, or delay in filing, or failure to complying with any other applicable PRC requirements for an offering, may subject us to sanctions imposed by the relevant PRC regulatory authority. In addition, if applicable laws, regulations, or interpretations change such that we are required to obtain approval in the future and we fail to obtain such approvals, we may be subject to an investigation by competent regulators, fines or penalties, or an order prohibiting us from conducting an offering, and these risks could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of our ordinary shares, significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors, or cause such securities to significantly decline in value or become worthless. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—We are required under PRC laws to submit filings to CSRC for our future offerings. However, we believe that we are not currently required to obtain the approval and/or comply with other requirements of the CSRC, the CAC, or other PRC governmental authorities under PRC rules, regulations or policies in connection with our continued listing on Nasdaq. In the event that any such approval is required or that there are other requirements we are obligated to comply with, we cannot predict whether or how soon we will be able to obtain such approvals and/or comply with such requirements.” and “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—We may be liable for improper use or appropriation of personal information provided by our customers and any failure to comply with PRC laws and regulations over data security could result in materially adverse impact on our business, results of operations, and our continued listing on Nasdaq”;

 

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  Our subsidiaries may be liable for improper use or appropriation of personal information provided by their customers and any failure to comply with PRC laws and regulations over data security could result in materially adverse impact on our business, results of operations, and our continued listing on Nasdaq;

 

  You may have difficulty enforcing judgments against us;

 

  Under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law, we may be classified as a “Resident Enterprise” of China. Such classification will likely result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our non-PRC shareholders;

 

  PRC regulation of loans to, and direct investments in, PRC entities by offshore holding companies may delay or prevent us from using proceeds from our future financing activities to make loans or additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries;

 

  We may rely on dividends paid by our subsidiaries for our cash needs, and any limitation on the ability of our subsidiaries to make payments to us could have a material adverse effect on our ability to conduct business;

 

  Governmental control of currency conversion may limit our ability to utilize our revenues effectively and affect the value of your investment;
     
  U.S. regulatory bodies may be limited in their ability to conduct investigations or inspections of our operations in China; and

  

  Our securities may be delisted and prohibited from being traded under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act if the PCAOB is unable to inspect our auditor in the future. Any future delisting and cessation of trading of our securities, or the threat of their being delisted and prohibited from being traded, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment. Additionally, any inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of our auditor in the future would deprive our investors of the benefits of such inspections. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Our ordinary shares may be delisted and prohibited from being traded under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act if the PCAOB is unable to inspect our auditors. The delisting and the cessation of trading of our ordinary shares, or the treat of their being delisted and prohibited from being traded, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment. Additionally, any inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections deprives our investors with the benefits of such inspections.”

 

Risks Related to Our Ordinary Shares

 

For more detailed discussions of the following risks, see “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Ordinary Shares” on pages 35 through 36.

 

  Future sales of our ordinary shares, whether by us or our shareholders, could cause the price of our ordinary shares to decline;

 

  Because we do not expect to pay dividends in the foreseeable future, you must rely on the price appreciation of our ordinary shares for return on your investment; and

 

  Techniques employed by short sellers may drive down the market price of our ordinary shares.

 

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Risks Related to our Business and Industry

 

Our subsidiaries’ business operations are cash intensive, and our subsidiaries’ business could be adversely affected if we fail to maintain sufficient levels of liquidity and working capital.

 

As of March 31, 2024, we had approximately $15.99 million of cash and cash equivalents. Historically, we have spent a significant amount of cash on our operational activities, principally to procure raw materials for our subsidiaries’ products. Our short-term loans are from Chinese banks and are generally secured by a portion of our fixed assets, land use rights and/or guarantees by related parties. Certain of these loans are secured against a portion of the shares of our PRC subsidiaries. The term of a majority of such loans is one year. Historically, we rolled over such loans on an annual basis. However, we may not have sufficient funds available to pay all of our borrowings upon maturity in the future. Failure to roll over our short-term borrowings at maturity or to service our debt could result in a transfer of the ownership of a portion of the shares of our PRC subsidiaries to secured lenders, the imposition of penalties, including increases in interest rates, legal actions against us by our creditors, and even insolvency.

 

Although we have been able to maintain adequate working capital primarily through cash from operations and short-term and long-term borrowings, any failure by our customers to settle outstanding accounts receivable, or our inability to borrow sufficient capital from local banks in the future could materially and adversely affect our cash flow, financial condition and results of operations.

 

We grant relatively long payment terms for accounts receivable which can adversely affect our cash flow.

 

As is customary in China, for competitive reasons, we grant relatively long payment terms to most of our subsidiaries’ customers. The allowances we establish for our receivables may not be adequate. We are subject to the risk that we may be unable to collect accounts receivable in a timely manner. If the accounts receivable cannot be collected in time, or at all, a significant amount of expected credit losses will occur, and our business, financial condition and results of operation will likely be materially and adversely affected.

 

Our subsidiaries face short lead-times for delivery of products to customers. Failure to meet delivery deadlines could result in the loss of customers and damage to our reputation and goodwill.

 

Most of our subsidiaries’ customers are large manufacturers, who generally place large orders for our subsidiaries’ products and require prompt delivery. Our subsidiaries’ product sale agreements typically contain short lead-times for the delivery of products and tight production and manufacturer supply schedules that can reduce our profit margins on the products procured from our subsidiaries’ suppliers. Our subsidiaries’ suppliers may lack sufficient capacity at any given time to meet all of the demands from our subsidiaries’ customers if orders exceed their production capacity. Our subsidiaries strive for rapid response to customer demands, which can lead to reduced purchasing efficiency, increased procurement costs and low profit margins. If our subsidiaries are unable to meet the customer demands, they may lose customers. Moreover, failure to meet customer demands may damage our reputation and goodwill.

 

Our subsidiaries face intense competition, and, if our subsidiaries are unable to compete effectively, we may not be able to maintain profitability.

 

Our subsidiaries compete with many other companies located in the PRC and internationally that manufacture similar products. Many of our subsidiaries’ competitors are larger companies with greater financial resources. Intense competition in a challenging economic environment in the PRC has, in the past, put pressure on our margins and may adversely affect our future financial performance. Moreover, intense competition may result in potential or actual litigation between our subsidiaries and their competitors relating to such activities as competitive sales practices, relationships with key suppliers and customers or other matters.

 

It is likely that our subsidiaries’ competitors will seek to develop similar competing products in the near future. Some of our subsidiaries’ competitors may have more resources than our subsidiaries do, operate in greater scale, be more capitalized than our subsidiaries are, have access to cheaper raw materials than our subsidiaries do, or offer products at a more competitive price. There can be no assurance that our initial competitive advantage will be retained and that one or more competitors will not develop products that are equal or superior in quality and are better priced than our subsidiaries’ products. If our subsidiaries are unable to compete effectively, our results of operations and financial position may be materially and adversely affected.

 

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Our revenues are highly dependent on a limited number of customers and the loss of any one of our subsidiaries’ major customers could materially and adversely affect our growth and revenues.

 

During the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, our subsidiaries’ five largest customers contributed 41.29% and 51.79% of our revenues, respectively. For the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, Greenland’s single largest customer, Hangcha Group, accounted for 14.15% and 19.55%, respectively, of Greenland’s total revenue, and Greenland’s second largest customer, Longgong Forklift Truck, accounted for 11.18% and 11.49%, respectively, of Greenland’s total revenue. As a result of our subsidiaries’ reliance on a limited number of customers, our subsidiaries may face pricing and other competitive pressures, which may have a material adverse effect on our profits and our revenues. The volume of products sold for specific customers varies from year to year, especially since our subsidiaries are not the exclusive provider for any customers. In addition, there are a number of factors that could cause the loss of a customer or a substantial reduction in the products that our subsidiaries provide to any customer that may not be predictable. For example, our subsidiaries’ customers may decide to reduce spending on our subsidiaries’ products or a customer may no longer need our subsidiaries’ products following the completion of a project. The loss of any one of our subsidiaries’ major customers, a decrease in the volume of sales to our subsidiaries’ customers or a decrease in the price at which our subsidiaries sell their products to customers could materially adversely affected our profits and revenues.

 

In addition, this customer concentration may subject our subsidiaries to perceived or actual leverage that our subsidiaries’ customers may have in negotiations, given their relative size and importance to our subsidiaries. If our subsidiaries’ customers seek to negotiate their agreements on terms less favorable to our subsidiaries and our subsidiaries accept such terms, such unfavorable terms may have a material adverse effect on our subsidiaries’ business and our financial condition and results of operations. Accordingly, unless and until our subsidiaries diversify and expand their customer base, our future success will significantly depend upon the timing and volume of business from our subsidiaries’ largest customers and the financial and operational success of these customers.

 

As our subsidiaries expand their operations, they may need to establish a more diverse supplier network for raw materials. The failure to secure a more diverse supplier network could have an adverse effect on our financial condition.

 

In the event that our subsidiaries need to diversify their supplier network, our subsidiaries may not be able to procure a sufficient supply of raw materials at a competitive price, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. Furthermore, despite our subsidiaries’ efforts to control their supply of raw materials and maintain good relationships with their existing suppliers, our subsidiaries could lose one or more of their existing suppliers at any time. The loss of one or more key suppliers could increase our subsidiaries’ reliance on higher cost or lower quality supplies, which could negative affect our profitability. Any interruptions to, or decline in, the amount or quality of our subsidiaries’ raw materials supply could materially disrupt our subsidiaries’ production and adversely affect our subsidiaries’ business and our financial condition and financial prospects.

 

To remain competitive, our subsidiaries have introduced new lines of business, including the production and sale of electric industrial heavy equipment. If these efforts are not successful, our results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

 

Prior to December 2020, through Zhongchai Holding and its PRC subsidiaries, our products mainly included transmission systems and integrated powertrains for material handling machineries, particularly for electric forklift trucks. In December 2020, through HEVI, we launched a new division to focus on the production and sale of electric industrial heavy equipment—a division that Greenland intends to develop to diversify its product offerings. HEVI’s electric industrial heavy equipment products currently include GEF-series electric forklifts, a series of lithium powered forklifts with three models ranging in size from 1.8 tons to 3.5 tons, GEL-1800, a 1.8 ton rated load lithium powered electric wheeled front loader, GEX-8000, an all-electric 8.0 ton rated load lithium powered wheeled excavator, and GEL-5000, an all-electric 5.0 ton rated load lithium wheeled front loader. HEVI also introduced mobile DC battery chargers to support a growing market of EV applications requiring DC charging capabilities in the North America market. These products are available for purchase in the U.S. market. In August 2022, HEVI launched a 54,000 square foot industrial electric vehicle assembly site in Baltimore, Maryland to support local services, assembly and distribution of its electric industrial heavy equipment product line.

 

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There are risks in connection with this new line of business. HEVI may experience difficulties in the development and launch of electric industrial heavy equipment, and HEVI’s products may not be well-accepted by the market. As we have limited experience in the electric industrial heavy equipment business, our efforts in developing such business may not succeed and we may not be able to generate sufficient revenue to cover our investment and become profitable. During such process, our results of operations and financial conditions may not be improved in a timely manner, or at all. We cannot assure you that we will successfully transition our business focus and it is possible that we remain in such transition period for an extended period of time. During such period, our revenue may be very limited and we may continue to experience material and adverse effects to our results of operations, financial condition and business prospects.

 

New lines of business, including the production and sale of electric industrial heavy equipment, may subject us and our subsidiaries to additional risks.

 

From time to time, we may implement new lines of business or offer new products within our subsidiaries’ existing lines of business. Currently, we plan to offer additional models of electric industrial heavy equipment through HEVI. As such, we face significant challenges, uncertainties and risks, including, among others, with respect to our subsidiaries’ ability to:

 

  build a well-recognized and respected brand;

 

  establish and expand our customer base;

 

  improve and maintain our operational efficiency for new lines of business;

 

  maintain a reliable, secure, high-performance and scalable technology infrastructure for our new lines of business;

 

  anticipate and adapt to changing market conditions, including technological development and changes in competitive landscape;

 

  navigate an evolving and complex regulatory environment, such as licensing and compliance requirements; and

 

  manage the resources and attention of management between our current core business and new lines of business.

 

Moreover, there can be no assurance that the introduction and development of new lines of business or new products and services would not encounter significant difficulties or delay or would achieve the profitability as we expect. Failure to successfully manage these risks in the development and implementation of new lines of business or new products or services could have a material adverse effect on our subsidiaries’ business and our results of operations and prospects. For example, HEVI may experience difficulties in developing and launching additional models of electric industrial heavy equipment, or may not be able to develop them at reasonable costs. Due to HEVI’s limited experience with electric industrial heavy equipment, HEVI also face challenges and uncertainties relating to the possibility of success of this new business.

 

As our subsidiaries enter into new business sectors, our subsidiaries are also subject to competition from such industries. There can be no assurance that our subsidiaries will be able to compete effectively with respect to their new businesses. If our subsidiaries fail to establish their strengths or maintain their competitiveness in those industries, our business prospects, results of operations and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected.

 

Volatile steel prices can cause significant fluctuations in our operating results. Our revenues and operating income could decrease if steel prices increase or if our subsidiaries are unable to pass price increases on to their customers.

 

Our subsidiaries’ principal raw materials are processed metal parts and components which are made of carburizing steel. The steel industry as a whole is cyclical and, at times, pricing and availability of steel can be volatile due to numerous factors beyond our subsidiaries’ control, including general domestic and international economic conditions, labor costs, sales levels, competition, levels of inventory, consolidation of steel producers, higher raw material costs for steel producers, import duties and tariffs and currency exchange rates. This volatility can significantly affect the availability and cost of raw materials.

 

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Our subsidiaries’ suppliers, like many other processed metal parts and components manufacturers, maintain substantial inventories of steel to accommodate the short lead times and just-in-time delivery requirements of customers. Accordingly, our subsidiaries’ suppliers purchase steel in an effort to maintain their inventory at levels that they believe to be appropriate to satisfy the anticipated needs of customers based upon historic buying practices, supply agreements with customers and market conditions. When steel prices increase, competitive conditions will influence how much of the price increase suppliers would pass on to our subsidiaries and how much our subsidiaries can pass on to their customers. To the extent our subsidiaries are unable to pass on future price increases in raw materials to their customers, the revenues and profitability of our business could be adversely affected.

 

We are subject to various risks and uncertainties that might affect our subsidiaries’ ability to procure raw materials.

 

Our performance depends upon our subsidiaries’ ability to procure low cost, high quality raw materials on a timely basis from their suppliers. Our subsidiaries’ suppliers are subject to certain risks, including the availability of raw materials, labor disputes, inclement weather, natural disasters, and general economic and political conditions, which might limit the ability of our subsidiaries’ suppliers to provide low cost, high quality merchandise on a timely basis. Furthermore, for these or other reasons, one or more of our subsidiaries’ suppliers might not adhere to our subsidiaries’ quality control standards, and our subsidiaries might not identify the deficiency. Any failure by our subsidiaries’ suppliers to supply quality materials at a reasonable cost on a timely basis could reduce our net sales or profits, damage our reputation and have an adverse effect on our financial condition.

 

Our subsidiaries may lose their competitive advantage, and their operations may suffer, if we fail to prevent the loss or misappropriation of, or disputes over, their intellectual property.

 

Our subsidiaries rely on a combination of patents, trademarks, trade secrets and confidentiality agreements to protect their intellectual property rights. While our subsidiaries are not currently aware of any infringement on their intellectual property rights, our subsidiaries’ ability to compete successfully and to achieve future revenue growth will depend, in significant part, on their ability to protect their proprietary technology. Despite many laws and regulations promulgated, as well as other efforts made, by China over the past several years in an attempt to protect intellectual property rights, intellectual property rights are not as certain in China as they would be in many Western countries, including the United States. Furthermore, enforcement of such laws and regulations in China has not been fully developed. Neither the administrative agencies nor the court systems in China are as equipped as their counterparts in developed countries to deal with violations or handle the nuances and complexities between compliant technological innovation and non-compliant infringement.

 

Our subsidiaries’ transmission technology is protected through a combination of patents, trade secrets, confidentiality agreements and other methods. However, our subsidiaries’ competitors may independently develop similar proprietary methodologies or duplicate our products, or develop alternatives, which could have a material adverse effect on our subsidiaries’ business and our results of operations and financial condition. The misappropriation or duplication of our subsidiaries’ intellectual property could disrupt their ongoing business, distract our management and employees, reduce our revenues and increase our expenses. Our subsidiaries may need to litigate to enforce their intellectual property rights. Any such litigation could be time consuming and costly and the outcome of any such litigation cannot be guaranteed.

 

Our PRC subsidiaries have limited insurance coverage for their operations in China and may incur losses resulting from product liability claims, business interruption or natural disasters.

 

HEVI, an operating subsidiary of ours in the U.S., maintains commercial general liability insurance for its business operations. However, our PRC subsidiaries have limited insurance coverage for their operations in China, and our PRC subsidiaries are therefore exposed to risks associated with product liability claims against our PRC subsidiaries or otherwise against their operations in the PRC in the event that the use of our PRC subsidiaries’ products results in property damage or personal injury. Since our subsidiaries’ transmission products are ultimately incorporated into forklifts, it is possible that users of forklifts or people installing these products could be injured or killed, whether as a result of defects, improper installation or other causes. We are unable to predict whether product liability claims will be brought against our PRC subsidiaries in the future or to predict the impact of any resulting adverse publicity on our PRC subsidiaries’ business. The successful assertion of product liability claims against our PRC subsidiaries could result in potentially significant monetary damages and require us to make significant payments. Our subsidiaries do not carry product liability insurance and may not have adequate resources to satisfy a judgment in the event of a successful claim against us. In addition, our subsidiaries do not currently, and may not in the future, maintain business interruption insurance coverage. As such, our subsidiaries may suffer losses that result from interruptions in their operations as a result of inability to operate or failures of equipment and infrastructure at our subsidiaries’ facilities. Our subsidiaries also do not currently maintain catastrophe insurance. As such, any natural disaster or man-made disaster could result in substantial losses and diversion of our subsidiaries’ resources to address the effects of such an occurrence, which could materially and adversely affect our subsidiaries’ business and our financial condition and results of operations.

 

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Failure to make adequate contributions to various employee benefit plans as required by PRC regulations may subject us to penalties.

 

Our PRC subsidiaries are required under PRC laws to participate in various government sponsored employee benefit plans, including social security insurance, housing funds and other welfare-oriented payments, and contribute to the plans in amounts equal to certain percentages of salaries, including bonuses and allowances, of their employees up to a maximum amount specified by the local government from time to time at locations where our PRC subsidiaries operate their businesses. Our PRC subsidiaries have not made adequate employee benefit payments to the social security insurance and the housing fund. As a result, they may be required to make up the contributions for these plans within a stipulated period of time. In addition, our PRC subsidiaries may be required to pay late fees equal to 0.05% of the shortage of the contributions to the social security fund for each day our PRC subsidiaries fail to make up the contributions and may be imposed fines up to three times of such shortage if our PRC subsidiaries fail to make up the difference within the time frame prescribed by relevant government authorities. The maximum amount of such penalties that we anticipate could be imposed on our PRC subsidiaries with respect such employee benefits payments is approximately US$200,000. If our PRC subsidiaries are subject to late fees or fines in relation to the underpaid employee benefits, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected. As of the date of this Report, our PRC subsidiaries have not been ordered to pay outstanding contributions or related penalties.

 

If labor costs in the PRC increase substantially, our PRC subsidiaries’ business and our costs of operations may be adversely affected.

 

In recent years, the Chinese economy has experienced inflation and labor cost increases. Average wages are projected to continue to increase. Further, under PRC law an employer is required to pay various statutory employee benefits, including pensions, housing funds, medical insurance, work-related injury insurance, unemployment insurance and maternity insurance to designated government agencies for the benefit of its employees. The relevant government agencies may examine whether an employer has made adequate payments to the statutory employee benefits, and those employers who fail to make adequate payments may be subject to late payment fees, fines and/or other penalties. We expect that our labor costs, including wages and employee benefits, will continue to increase based on the past trends. If we are unable to control our labor costs or pass such increased labor costs on to our subsidiaries’ customers, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

 

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected and could continue to adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has continued to spread across the world and has created unique global and industry-wide challenges. COVID-19 has resulted in quarantines, travel restrictions, and the temporary closure of offices and facilities in China and many other countries. New COVID-19 variants have also emerged, potentially extending the period during which COVID-19 will negatively impact the global economy.

 

Since 2021, a few waves of COVID-19 infections emerged in various regions of China, and in response, the Chinese government implemented certain anti-COVID measures and protocols. Chinese industries have gradually resumed businesses as the Chinese government lifted its COVID-19 protocols and measures since December 2022. The COVID-19 pandemic has not resulted in significant impact on our operations for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023.

 

However, the potential downturn brought by, and the duration of, the COVID-19 pandemic may be difficult to assess or predict, and any associated negative impact on us will depend on many factors beyond our control. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic impacts our future results remains uncertain, and we are closely monitoring its impact on us. Our subsidiaries’ business and our results of operations, financial conditions and prospects could be adversely affected directly, as well as indirectly, to the extent that the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic harms the Chinese and global economy in general.

 

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We may not be able to effectively protect our intellectual property from unauthorized use by others.

 

Through its subsidiaries, we hold patents, trademarks and other intellectual properties that are critical to our business in the PRC. Any of our intellectual property rights could be challenged, invalidated, circumvented or misappropriated, or such intellectual property may not be sufficient to provide us with competitive advantages. We cannot assure you that (i)  all of the intellectual property rights we owned will be adequately protected, or (ii) our intellectual property rights will not be challenged by third parties or found by a judicial authority to be invalid or unenforceable. Moreover, there can be no assurance that we will obtain such trademarks and any other trademarks that are crucial to our business in the future. Thus, third parties may also take the position that we are infringing their rights, and we may not be successful in defending these claims. Additionally, we may not be able to enforce and defend its proprietary rights or prevent infringement or misappropriation, without incurring substantial expenses to us and a significant diversion of management time and attention from our business strategy.

 

To protect our parents, trademarks and other proprietary rights, we reply on and expect to continue to rely on a combination of physical and electronic security measures and trademark, patent and trade secret protection laws. If the measures we have taken to protect our proprietary rights are inadequate to prevent the use or misappropriation by third parties or such rights are diminished due to successful challenges, the value of our brand and other intangible assets may be diminished and our ability to attract and retain customers may be adversely affected.

 

Competition for our and our subsidiaries’ employees is intense, and we and our subsidiaries may not be able to attract and retain the highly skilled employees needed to support our subsidiaries’ business.

 

As we continue to experience growth, our future success depends on our and our subsidiaries’ ability to attract, develop, motivate and retain highly qualified and skilled employees, including engineers, financial personnel and marketing professionals. Competition for highly skilled engineering, sales, technical and financial personnel is extremely intense. We and our subsidiaries may not be able to hire and retain these personnel at compensation levels consistent with our existing compensation and salary structure. Many of the companies with which we and our subsidiaries compete for experienced employees have greater resources than we and our subsidiaries have and may be able to offer more attractive terms of employment.

 

In addition, we and our subsidiaries invest significant time and expense in training our employees, which increases their value to competitors who may seek to recruit them. If we and our subsidiaries fail to retain our employees, we could incur significant expenses in hiring and training their replacements, and the quality of our products could decrease, resulting in a material adverse effect on our subsidiaries’ business.

 

Our business depends on the continued efforts of our senior management. If one or more of our key executives were unable or unwilling to continue in their present positions, our business may be severely disrupted.

 

Our business operations depend on the continuing services of our senior management. While we have provided different incentives to our management, we cannot assure you that we can continue to retain their services. If one or more of our key executives were unable or unwilling to continue in their present positions, we may not be able to replace them easily or at all, our future growth may be constrained, business may be severely disrupted and our financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected, and we may incur additional expenses to recruit, train and retain qualified personnel. In addition, although we have entered into a non-competition agreement with Mr. Peter Zuguang Wang, the chairman of our board of directors, there is no assurance that Mr. Wang will not join our competitors or form a competing business. If any dispute arises between us and Mr. Wang, we may incur substantial costs and expenses in order to enforce the non-competition agreement in China, and we may be unable to enforce it at all.

 

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We do not maintain “key person” insurance, and as a result, we may incur losses if any of our directors, executive officers, senior manager or other key employees chooses to terminate his or her services with us.

 

We do not maintain “key person” insurance for our directors, executive officers, senior management or other key employees. If any of our key employees terminate his or her services or otherwise becomes unable to provide continuous services to us, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected and we may incur additional expenses to recruit, train and retain qualified personnel. If any of our executive officers or key employees joins a competitor or forms a competing company, we may lose customers, operational know-how and key professionals and staff members.

 

We are currently operating in a period of economic uncertainty and capital markets disruption, which has been significantly impacted by geopolitical instability due to the ongoing invasion of Ukraine by Russia and conflicts between Israel and Hamas.

 

U.S. and global markets are experiencing volatility and disruption as a result of the outbreak or escalation of wards including Russia’s launch of a full-scale military invasion of Ukraine, conflicts between Israel and Hamas. Although the length and impact of these ongoing conflicts are highly unpredictable, these conflicts have led to market disruptions, including significant volatility in commodity prices, credit, and capital markets. In addition, as a result of the ongoing conflicts around the world, we may experience other risks, difficulties and challenges in the way we conduct our business and operations generally. For example, the conflict could adversely affect supply chains and impact our ability to control raw material costs. A protracted conflict between Ukraine and Russia or between Israel and Hamas, any escalation of either conflict, and the wider global economy and market conditions could, in turn, have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our ordinary shares to decline.

 

High inflation rates may adversely affect us by increasing costs beyond what we can recover through price increases and limit our ability to enter into future traditional debt financing.

 

Inflation can adversely affect us by increasing costs of critical materials, equipment, labor, and other services. In addition, inflation is often accompanied by higher interest rates. Continued inflationary pressures could impact our profitability. Inflation may also affect our ability to enter into future traditional debt financing, as high inflation may result in an increase in cost.

 

The outcome of litigation, inquiries, investigations, examinations, or other legal proceedings in which we are involved, in which we may become involved, or in which our clients or competitors are involved could distract management, increase our expenses, or subject us to significant monetary damages or restrictions on our ability to do business.

 

From time to time, we are subject to litigations or legal proceedings in connection with our business operations. The scope and outcome of these proceedings is often difficult to assess or quantify. Plaintiffs in lawsuits may seek recovery of large amounts, and the cost to defend such litigation may be significant.

 

For example, on April 26, 2024, all of the Company’s current directors, the Company’s chief executive officer, and the Company’s controlling shareholder, Cenntro Holding Limited, were named as defendants (collectively, the “Defendants”), and the Company was named as a nominal defendant in a shareholder derivate action filed in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey. The compliant assets, inter alia, that Defendants breached their fiduciary duties owed to the Company, committed waste and violated Section 16(a) of the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. The complainant seeks: (i) on behalf of the Company, monetary damages of no less than $38,060,365; (ii) to restrict Mr. Peter Wang, the chairman of the Company’s board of directors from selling ordinary shares of the Company until Cenntro Holding Limited has paid off its amount due to the Company and setting up a trust over any future funds from sales of the Company’s ordinary shares by Mr. Peter Wang or Cenntro Holding Limited; (iii) that the Defendants disgorge profits obtained as a result of their wrongful conduct; (iv) to enjoin of the Company’s proposed spin-off transaction; (v) attorney fees and costs; and (vi) any other relief the court may deem just and proper.

 

Any negative outcomes from above material litigation or any other regulatory actions or litigation or claims, including monetary penalties or damages or injunctive provisions regulating or restricting how we conduct our business could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and reputation. Regardless of whether any current or future claims in which we are involved have merit, or whether we are ultimately held liable or subject to payment of penalties, such investigations and claims have been and may continue to be expensive to defend, may divert management’s time away from our operations and may result in changes to our business practices that adversely affect our results of operations.

 

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Risks Related to Doing Business in China

 

Changes in China’s economic, political or social conditions or government policies could have a material adverse effect on our business and operations.

 

A substantial majority of our assets and operations are located in China. Accordingly, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may be influenced to a significant degree by political, economic and social conditions in China generally. The PRC economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including with regard to the level of government involvement, level of development, growth rate, control of foreign exchange and allocation of resources. Although the PRC government has implemented measures emphasizing the utilization of market forces for economic reform, the reduction of state ownership of productive assets, and the establishment of improved corporate governance in business enterprises, a substantial portion of productive assets in China is still owned by the government. In addition, the PRC government continues to play a significant role in regulating industry development by imposing industrial policies.

 

The PRC government also exercises significant control over China’s economic growth through allocating resources, controlling payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy, and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies.

 

While the PRC economy has experienced significant growth over the past decades, growth has been uneven, both geographically and among various sectors of the economy, and the rate of growth has been slowing since 2012. Any adverse changes in economic conditions in China, in the policies of the PRC government or in the laws and regulations in China could have a material adverse effect on the overall economic growth of China. Such developments could adversely affect our business and operating results, lead to reduction in demand for our subsidiaries’ products and adversely affect our subsidiaries’ competitive position. The PRC government has implemented various measures to encourage economic growth and guide the allocation of resources. Some of these measures may benefit the overall PRC economy, but may have a negative effect on us and our subsidiaries. For example, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by government control over capital investments or changes in tax regulations. In addition, in the past the PRC government has implemented certain measures, including interest rate adjustment, to control the pace of economic growth. These measures may cause decreased economic activity in China, which may adversely affect our business and operating results.

 

Uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system could adversely affect us and our PRC subsidiaries.

 

The PRC legal system is a civil law system based on written statutes. Unlike the common law system, prior court decisions under the civil law system may be cited for reference but have limited precedential value. Since these laws and regulations are relatively new and the PRC legal system continues to rapidly evolve, the interpretations of many laws, regulations and rules are not always uniform and the enforcement of these laws, regulations and rules involves uncertainties.

 

In 1979, the PRC government began to promulgate a comprehensive system of laws and regulations governing economic matters in general. The overall effect of legislation over the past four decades has significantly enhanced the protections afforded to various forms of foreign investments in China. However, China has not developed a fully integrated legal system, and recently enacted laws and regulations may not sufficiently cover all aspects of economic activities in China. In particular, the interpretation and enforcement of these laws and regulations involve uncertainties. Since PRC administrative and court authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory provisions and contractual terms, it may be difficult to evaluate the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection we enjoy. These uncertainties may affect our and/or our PRC subsidiaries’ judgment on the relevance of legal requirements and our/our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to enforce our/their contractual rights or tort claims. In addition, the regulatory uncertainties may be exploited through unmerited or frivolous legal actions or threats in attempts to extract payments or benefits from us and our PRC subsidiaries.

 

Furthermore, the PRC legal system is based in part on government policies and internal rules, some of which are not published on a timely basis or at all and may have retroactive effect. As a result, we and/or our PRC subsidiaries may not be aware of our/their violation of any of these policies and rules until sometime after the violation. In addition, any administrative and court proceedings in China may be protracted, resulting in substantial costs and diversion of resources and management attention.

 

In addition, we and our PRC subsidiaries are subject to risks and uncertainties of the interpretations and applications of PRC laws and regulations, including, but not limited to, limitations on foreign ownership in the industry our PRC subsidiaries operate. We and our PRC subsidiaries are also subject to the risks and uncertainties about any future actions of the PRC government. If any future actions of the PRC government result in a material change in our operations, and the value of our ordinary shares may depreciate significantly or become worthless.

 

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The PRC government exerts substantial influence over the manner in which our PRC subsidiaries must conduct their business activities. If the Chinese government significantly regulates the business operations of our PRC subsidiaries in the future and our PRC subsidiaries are not able to substantially comply with such regulations, the business operations of our PRC subsidiaries may be materially and adversely affected and the value of our ordinary shares may significantly decrease.

 

The PRC government has exercised, and continues to exercise, substantial control over virtually every sector of the Chinese economy through regulation and state ownership, including steel sector where our PRC subsidiaries have been doing their business. Any government decisions or actions to change the way steel production is regulated, or any decisions the government might make to cut spending, could adversely impact our PRC subsidiaries’ business and our results of operations. In addition, the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to operate in China may be harmed by changes in PRC laws and regulations, including those relating to taxation, environmental conditions, land use rights, property and other matters. The central or local governments of these jurisdictions may impose new, stricter regulations or interpretations of existing regulations that would require additional expenditures and efforts on our part to ensure our compliance with such regulations or interpretations. Accordingly, government actions in the future, including any decision not to continue to support recent economic reforms and to return to a more centrally planned economy or regional or local variations in the implementation of economic policies, could have a significant effect on economic conditions in China or particular regions thereof, and could require us to divest ourselves of any interest we then hold in Chinese properties.

 

We believe that our PRC subsidiaries’ operations in China are in material compliance with all applicable legal and regulatory requirements. However, the central or local governments of the jurisdictions in which our PRC subsidiaries operate may impose new, stricter regulations or interpretations of existing regulations with little advance notice that would require additional expenditures and efforts on their part to ensure our subsidiaries’ compliance with such regulations or interpretations.

 

Our PRC subsidiaries may incur increased costs necessary to comply with existing and newly adopted laws and regulations or penalties for any failure to comply. In the event that our PRC subsidiaries are not able to substantially comply with any existing or newly adopted laws and regulations, our business operations may be materially adversely affected and the value of our ordinary shares may significantly decrease.

 

Furthermore, the PRC government authorities may strengthen oversight and control over offerings that are conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in China-based issuers like us. Such actions taken by the PRC government authorities may intervene or influence the operations of our PRC subsidiaries at any time, which may be beyond our control. Therefore, any such action may adversely affect the operations of our PRC subsidiaries and substantially limit or hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to you and significantly reduce the value of such securities or cause the value of such securities to be completely worthless.

 

We are required under PRC laws to submit filings to CSRC for our future offerings. However, we believe that we and our PRC subsidiaries are not currently required to obtain the approval and/or comply with other requirements of the CSRC, the CAC, or other PRC governmental authorities under PRC rules, regulations or policies in connection with our continued listing on Nasdaq. In the event that any such approval is required or that there are other requirements we and/or our PRC subsidiaries are obligated to comply with, we cannot predict whether or how soon we and/or our PRC subsidiaries will be able to obtain such approvals and/or comply with such requirements.

 

The Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the M&A Rules, purport to require offshore special purpose vehicles that are controlled by PRC companies or individuals and that have been formed for the purpose of seeking a public listing on an overseas stock exchange through acquisitions of PRC domestic companies or assets to obtain CSRC approval prior to publicly listing their securities on an overseas stock exchange. The interpretation and application of those regulations remain unclear.

 

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In addition, the PRC government authorities may strengthen future oversight over offerings that are conducted overseas. For instance, on July 6, 2021, the relevant PRC governmental authorities promulgated the Opinions on Strictly Cracking Down on Illegal Securities Activities, which emphasized the need to strengthen the PRC government’s supervision over overseas listings by PRC companies. Pursuant to the Opinions, effective measures, such as promoting the construction of relevant regulatory systems, are to be taken to deal with the risks of China-based overseas-listed companies, cybersecurity and data privacy protection requirements and similar matters. The Cybersecurity Review Measures (Decree No. 8 of the Cybersecurity Administration of the PRC), or the revised Cybersecurity Review Measures, enacted on December 28, 2021 and came into effect on February 15, 2022, also require online platform operators holding over one million users’ personal information to apply for a cybersecurity review before any public offering on a foreign stock exchange. These statements and regulations are recently issued, and there remain substantial uncertainties about their interpretation and implementation. See also “—Our PRC subsidiaries may be liable for improper use or appropriation of personal information provided by their customers and any failure to comply with PRC laws and regulations over data security could result in materially adverse impact on our business, results of operations, and our continued listing on Nasdaq.”

 

On February 17, 2023, the CSRC published the Regulations of Trial Administrative Measures of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies (the “Trial Measures”) and its accompanying guidelines and instructions, which came into effect on March 31, 2023, and will apply if a domestic enterprise issues shares, depositary receipts, corporate bonds convertible into shares, or other securities of an equity nature outside of the PRC, or lists its securities for trading outside of the PRC. According to such regulations, a domestic enterprise that issues and lists its securities outside of the PRC shall comply with the filing procedures and report the relevant information to the CSRC. A domestic enterprise shall not be listed on an overseas stock exchange if any of the following circumstances exists: (i) where such securities offering and listing is explicitly prohibited by provisions in laws, administrative regulations and relevant state rules; (ii) where the intended securities offering and listing may endanger national security as reviewed and determined by competent authorities under the State Council in accordance with law; (iii) where the domestic company intending to make the securities offering and listing, or its controlling shareholders and the actual controller, have committed crimes such as corruption, bribery, embezzlement, misappropriation of property or undermining the order of the socialist market economy during the latest three years; (iv) where the domestic company intending to make the securities offering and listing is suspected of committing crimes or major violations of laws and regulations, and is under investigation according to law, and no conclusion has yet been made thereof; (v) where there are material ownership disputes over equity held by the domestic company’s controlling shareholder or by other shareholders that are controlled by the controlling shareholder and/or actual controller. The Trial Measures changes the management of licensing to record management, strengthen the supervision in the aftermath, create a more transparent and predictable institutional environment, and support the standardized development of enterprises using the overseas capital market.

 

According to the Notice on Filing Management Arrangements for Overseas Listings of Domestic Enterprises issued and implemented by the CSRC on February 17, 2023, since the date of effectiveness of the Trial Measures, the domestic enterprises falling within the scope of filing that have been listed overseas or met the following circumstances are existing enterprises: Before the effectiveness of the Trial Measures, the application for indirect overseas issuance and listing has been agreed by the overseas regulators or overseas stock exchanges (such as having passed the hearing on the Hong Kong market or registration become effective as agreed on the U.S. market, etc.), and it is not required to perform issuance and listing supervision procedures of the overseas regulators or overseas stock exchanges (such as rehearing on the Hong Kong market, etc.), and the overseas issuance and listing will be completed by September 30, 2023. According to the above regulations, the Company is an existing enterprise, which do not be required to file immediately, and filing should be made as required if they involve refinancing and other filing matters.